Alamgir II is also known as Aziz-ud-din. He was born on June 06/1699 in Multan and died in Delhi. He was the second son of Jahandar Shah and India’s sixteenth Mughal emperor between 1754 and 1759. After deposing Ahmad Shah Bahadur in 1754, Imad-ul-Mulk ( a powerful vizier) elevated Aziz-ud-din to the throne. He assumed the name Alamgir and tried to replicate Aurangzeb’s style when he gained the throne. At the time of his ascension to the throne, he was fifty-five years old. Because he had spent most of his life in jail, he had little expertise with administration or warfare. He was just an idle person. All administration was controlled by vizier Imad-ul-Mulk.
Reign of Alamgir II
As the British took control of Bengal, he witnessed the beginning of the end of his empire (in 1757). Sikhs in Punjab became increasingly independent as Maratha invaders from the south encroached. Ahmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan was ruling from the North after he invaded and sacked Delhi in 1756, and Alamgir was nothing more than a puppet ruler.
Several Nawabs sought the approval of Alamgir II and his coordination in their fight against the Maratha. But he did not help them because he was just a puppet.
Ahmad Shah Abdali
When Marathas were spreading in India and Mughals were unable to defend the territory. Shah Waliulllah and Najib-ul-Dula called Ahmad shah Abdali for assistance. So Ahmad Shah started to march towards India again in 1756. After reaching Lahore in 1756, Ahmad Shah Durrani made his son the new ruler of Lahore (Timur Shah Durrani). However, Alamgir II remained in Delhi without reacting to anything. Then Ahmad Shah went to Delhi where he was received by Alamgir II and other nobles. Ahmad Shah’s son was married to Alamgir II’s daughter there. Ahmad Shah Abdali also married Muhammad shah Rangeela’s daughter. After that Ahmad Shah left his army to fight against Maratha under his son and came back to Afghanistan.
The terrorists of Peshawar and Lahore were under the rule of Timur Shah Durrani. Marathas started to attack these areas to expand the Maratha empire. After many conflicts, Maratha gain control of these areas and on the north side, they also were also trying to capture Delhi. After all this situation Ahmad Shah came in 1761 to fight against Maratha Empire. In the third battle of Panipat in 1761 Marathas got defeated by the Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Imad-ul-Mulk (his vizer) was a puppet of Maratha. So he plotted to murder Alamgir II and others family members. Because Imad-ul-Mulk had feared that Alamgir II would dispose of him with the help of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Ahmad Shah Durrani was a problem for Maratha also. So he sent a person to kill him. That person killed Alamgir II in 1759. In his tenure, the Nawab of Bengal “ Siraj-ud-dula” was killed by the East India Company in 1757. After his death, his son Shah Alam-II succeeded him who escaped from Delhi when his father was killed.