Aurangzeb was the 6th and last powerful emperor of the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb was the most powerful and wealthy monarch of his days. He was born on October 21, 1618, in Dohad and died on the border of Gujarat and Rajputana on 3 March 1707. His approximately 50-year rule (1658–1707) had a significant impact on the early modern Indian political scene. He ruled the subcontinent more than Akbar the Great.
Aurangzeb Alamgir was the third child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. He grew up as a serious-minded and devoted young man, devoid of the regal Mughal qualities of sensuality. He demonstrated military and administrative abilities from an early young age. He possesses these characteristics, as well as a desire for power.
These characteristics pitted Aurangzeb against his elder brother Dara Shikoh. Dara Shikoh was selected by their father as his heir to the kingdom. Aurangzeb held a variety of significant positions beginning in 1636 and he performed very well in all these positions.
Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb
Shah Jahan was suffering from a terrible sickness and he was unable to run the administration of the Empire. Dara Shikoh was selected by their father as his heir to the kingdom. Dara Shikoh was a liberal-minded unorthodox Muslim as opposed to the orthodox Aurangzeb. It created a war of succession between the four sons of Shah Jahan — Aurangzeb, Shah Shuja, Murad Bakhsh, and Dara Shikoh. In this battle, Aurangzeb remained successful in 1657 and became the Emperor of the Mughal Empire. He seized his father in Agra Fort, where he died at 74 years of age in 1666.
He killed his brother Murad in 1661. Shah Shuja fled in the forests of Burma. Dara Shikoh was kidnapped and executed by Aurangzeb’s troops,
Aurangzeb Ruling Period
From the time (1618–1707), Aurangzeb was the last great Mughal emperor. Under the Aurangzeb Ruling period (1658–1707), Mughal forces waged nearly continual conquest wars, and the empire grew to its greatest size. During the aurangzeb ruling period, he was working in the interests of genuine religion and the peace of the kingdom. As soon as he gained control of the throne, he began enacting changes that would transform his territory into a true Muslim state. Following his coronation, he issued orders designed to appease the orthodox.
During the Aurangzeb ruling period, the economic sector was adamantly opposed to all illegal taxes and levies that were not allowed by Islamic law. Under the aurangzeb ruling period immediately following his coronation, he eliminated the inland transit charge ( Rahdari ) of 10% of the value of commodities, as well as the Octroi ( Pandari ) on all articles of food and drink brought into cities for sale.
Two extremely separate occurrences characterize Aurangzeb’s rule. In Aurangzeb achievements were the first, He began as a feared warlord, extending his kingdom even more. In Aurangzeb achievements, The second characteristic of Aurangzeb’s rule is religious stubbornness.
Aurangzeb Religious Actions in his Reign Period
Aurangzeb took many religious decisions in his reign. He also took many strong actions against wrong deeds. He wanted to run his reign period on the basic principles of Islam. For this, he took different actions which are listed here:
Ban on Hindu Temples and Festivals
Aurangzeb chose not to follow his forefathers’ liberal religious views. He intended to turn the country into an Islamic state, and he banned Hindu festivities and demolished numerous Hindu temples. He became well-known for his atrocities and cruelty against members of various faiths. He destroyed Christian villages near European companies was one of appreciated Aurangzeb achievements.
Strict Actions Against Narcotics
- In the Mughal Empire, he established numerous stringent regulations, including the prohibition of alcohol, gambling, music, and drugs. Furthermore, he levied discriminatory levies on non-Muslims and fired many Hindus was included in Aurangzeb achievements.
After it, there were some of Aurangzeb’s religious facts mentioned below:
- The kalima has been withdrawn from coinage.
- The Persian ‘New Year Day‘ celebrations have been abolished,
- Muhtasibs have also been named for the enforcement of Qur’an Law.
- The practice of measuring his body against gold, silver, and other goods was halted by Aurangzeb.
- He ended Jharoka Darshan’s tradition, it took away the chance of the Emperor to remedy his mistakes immediately.
- The royal astronomers and astrologers have also been rejected.
- He prohibited women from visiting the holy men’s shrines.
- Prostitution was prohibited; prostitutes were allowed to marry or to leave the Mughal Empire.
Aurangzeb’s Aim of Expanding the Mughal Empire
During his reign, one of the efficient Aurangzeb achievements was he was able to extend the Mughal Empire to 3.2 million square kilometers, making him the richest and most powerful man of his time. Aurangzeb extended Mughal power north and south, but his frequent military expeditions and religious intolerance infuriated many of his people.
During Aurangzeb’s reign, the Mughal Empire was continuously at war. In addition to annexing the Ahmednagar Sultanate, he conquered the Adil Shahis of Bijapur and the Qutb Shahis of Golconda. Throughout his lengthy rule, he was also able to expand his kingdom in the south as far as Tanjore (now Thanjavur) and Trichinopoly (now Tiruchchirappalli).
Revolts in Aurangzeb Empire Period
Many revolts were there in the Aurangzeb Empire Period. Some main revolts of the Aurengzeb empire period.
Revolts with the Jats
The Jats of Mathura revolted three times against Mughal rule. These revolts were largely motivated by Aurangzeb’s anti-Hindu policies. They couldn’t bear the destruction of their temples. They objected to the erection of a mosque on the site of Lord Krishna’s birthplace in Mathura.
On the other hand, the land revenue taxed on them was too high. The attitude of Abdul Nalu, the Faujdar of Mathura, also contributed to widespread hatred of the Mughal authority. Therefore Jats revolted three times against the Aurangzeb. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Jats were able to create their empire, with Bharatpur as its capital.
Revolts with the Satnamis
In the districts of Narnaul and Mewat, the Satnamis established a Hindu religious group. The majority of them worked in agriculture. In general, they were devout individuals. They, on the other hand, did not accept any form of oppression. They stored guns and weaponry to protect themselves from any attempt to harm them.
A Mughal soldier killed an unarmed Satnami farmer. They revolted and assassinated the local Mughal officer in reaction. After that Aurangzeb, himself chose to go to Narnaul because he suspected a Hindu insurrection throughout the province.
Aurangzeb assaulted them with a large army backed up by artillery. The Satnamis were slaughtered indiscriminately. The revolt was defeated, but the people grew to despise the rule and hoped for a chance to liberate themselves of the Mughals’ harsh control.
Revolts with the Sikhs
The struggle between the Sikhs and the Mughal emperors began during the reign of Jahangir when he tortured to death Guru Arjun Dev, the fifth Guru of the Sikhs. During Aurangzeb’s rule, the fighting intensified. The ninth Guru, Guru Teg Bahadur (1664-75), was deeply troubled by Aurangzeb’s non-Muslim policies. He publicly stated his displeasure with this policy.
Aurangzeb called him to Delhi and after much torture, he was executed for refusing to do so. The conflict with the Sikhs lasted the whole reign of Aurangzeb. Gurudwara Sisganj near Delhi’s Chandni Chowk commemorates his sacrifice every year.
Revolt with the Shivaji
The war of Aurangzeb with Shivaji began in 1659 and continued till the death of Shivaji in 1680. Shivaji was able to build a powerful Maratha kingdom despite the vast army and Aurangzeb’s immense riches.
Revolt with the Afghans
In the battle which lasted a decade, the Mughal armies sustained severe losses. In the end, the Afghans’ unified front was ended and many people were killed. After that peace came in Afghanistan.
In the Deccan, the Mughal army could never suppress the whole Hindu opposition, while at the same time northern Punjab Sikhs rose against Aurangzeb again and again. Perhaps most worryingly for his southern army, he depended largely on Rajput troops, who were loyal Hindus at this time. Therefore Aurangzeb faced a lot of trouble from the Southern side of his kingdom.
The Pashtun Rebellion of 1672-1674 was the most catastrophic uprising of all. The Mughal dynasty founder, Babur, arrived from Afghanistan to conquer Indian rule and the family always relied on Afghanistan’s ferocious Pashtun tribesmen.
The charge of a Mughal governor distressing tribal women prompted a Pashtun uprising that resulted in a total breakup of the rule over the empire’s northern stage and its major trading routes. This results in the long-lasting revolt of Mughals with Pashtuns.
At the time of Aurangzeb’s reign, the subcontinent economy was ¼ of Global GDP and more than entire Europe. His brutality, betrayal, and intolerance certainly contributed to the once-great empire’s downfall. He built the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore.
In any event, Aurangzeb was a courageous guy who understood what he had to do to survive. Unfortunately, his decisions rendered the Mughal Empire considerably less capable of repelling Western aggression in the end.
Aurangzeb Death Place
Aurangzeb, at the age of 88, died. Aurangzeb death place in Central India ( Ahmednagar) on 3 March 1707. He left an empire that reached the verge of rupture and was plagued with rebellions. The Mughal Dynasty started its long, gradual collapse under his son Bahadur Shah I.