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Babur-Zahir-ud-din Muhammad

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Babar empire

Babur

The real name of the Babur was Zahir-ud-din Muhammad. Babus was his nickname which was given him due to his achievements. Babus means is “Panther”. He was born on 15 February 1483 in Fergana and died on 26 December 1530 in Agra. 

Babur birth place

Babur

Kingdom of Babur

Babur birth place was Ferghana Babur was the first Mughal emperor and founder of the Mughal dynasty which  ruled  northern India and then whole India, Pakistan, Afghasnitan from the 16th to the 19th century.  His father name was Omar Sheik Mirza. He was Timur’s descendant via his dad. His mother (Kutlug Nigar Khanim) was the descendant of Genghis Khan. Babur, therefore, had a full warrior-ancestry, yet he was pretty literate. He was thoroughly educated and was a  skilled rider as well as a strong swimmer. He was a liberal ruler, and without any difficulty, he recognized that his domain’s population was not Muslims. 

Babur ascended the throne /Rise to Power

His father, Omar Sheik Mirza was emir of Ferghana. In 1494 he died unexpectedly, and Babur, at the age of 12, ascended the throne of his father. His main aim was to conquer Samarkand, a prosperous town that he considers legitimacy as former capital of the Timurid Kingdom. He conquered Samarkand in 1496, but on the other hand, he lost control of Ferghana. After this, he came back and tried to recapture the Ferghana, but in this attempt, he lost control of Samarkand even.  Because his uncle and other nobility in Andijan made a severe revolt.  As a result, he lost control of Samarkand as he turned back to protect it. In 1501 he again tried to capture Samarkand, but Muhammad Shaybani defeated him. After so many defeats, he decided to come towards the subcontinent.  

Babur captured kabul in

Babur travelled around Central Asia for many years and tried to recruit his supporters to help him regain the throne of his father. After many defeats, he and his little army finally turned to the Southeast in 1504 and marched to Afghanistan over the snow-based Hindu Kush mountains. At twenty-one years old, babur captured Kabul in 1504 after defeating Abdul Razzaq and laid a foundation for his empire in Kabul.

Babar Empire

Babur obtained muskets (a type of gun)  and artillery in 1519 and made sail towards the East (Pakistan and India). He first took the Yusufzai Fort in Bajaur, now the northwest frontier region of Pakistan. At that time most of the northwest areas of Pakistan was under the authority of the Gakhars. Gakhars controlled all region from Pharwala Fort which is located 40 km away from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.  He attacked Pharwala Fort by surprise and defeated the Gakhars. The Chief of Gakhar submitted, and Babur recognized his dominion over the Potwar Plateau. After that all area under Gakhar also came in the authority of Babar empire.

Babur and Ibrahim Lodi

In 1521 Babar got an excellent chance for expansion of his empire in East.  People of Delhi were very disappointed and angry by Ibrahim Lodi’s policies. He disrespected many nobles publicly and even abusue them. After four years of Lodi’s leadership, the nobles had become frustrated with him. Some nobles urged Babur to travel to the sultanate of Delhi and remove Ibrahim.

Babur was happy to hear such news. He started to  raise an army and marched towards Delhi. During the siege of the Delhi Sultanate, prominent nobles and military men, like the uncle of Ibrahim Lodi, Alam Khan, and the ruler of Punjab Daulat Khan, were aligned with Babur in defeating Lodi

Battle of Panipat

Battle of Panipat was fought between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi. Babar gathered an army of 100,000 men and 100 elephants and In 1525 started his  marched on Delhi. Ibrahim Lodi also raised an army and advanced to intercept him. Babur and Ibrahim lodi armies met with each other in 1526 at historical battleground of Panipat which is 91 km away from Delhi. 

Ibrahim Lodi had higher numbers of soldiers, but the soldiers of Babur were more equipped. First Four days both armies fought with each other without any final result.  On the fifth day of fighting, Ibrahim Lodi, along with 15,000 soldiers was killed. On the next day, Babur went to  Delhi  and became emperor of Delhi. After that Babar founded the Mughal empire in Delhi in 1526.

Battle of Khanwa

As a result of his victory in the Battle of Panipat 1526, Babar became the ruler of Delhi and Agra and his empire expanded from kabul to agra. He founded the Mughal Empire in Delhi. He now had to deal with the Afghan and  Rana Sangha ( ruler of Mewar). Rna Sangha Thought that Babur would go back to Kabul like his ancestor Timur and then  he will capture the throne of Delhi. But when he saw the Mughal invader had seized not only Delhi’s crown but also had no intention of returning, he felt a sense of danger for him. Instead Babur  started to capture more areas and soon he captured Kalpi, Dholpur, and Bayana. After that Rana Sanga of Mewar quickly began war preparations against Babur.

In the first phase, Rana Sangha launched an attack on Nizam Khan, Babur’s governor of Bayana. Nizam was defeated and fled to Agra, where he found refuge with Babur. Rana Sangha’s action could not be tolerated by the Mughal conquerors, who marched to Bayana. Moreover, Hassan Khan Mewati and Muhammad Lodhi, the brother of Ibrahim Lodhi, had joined Rana Sangha. As a result, Muslims and Hindus allied to remove the Mughals from their land for the first time.

There were roughly 40000 men under Babur’s command, whereas Rana Sangha commanded about 80000 soldiers. Babur was well aware that fighting with Muslims and Hinuds at same time was not an easy task. Therefore he started to agitate peoples with different tactics. He said he would let everyone go home one by one. He called it a holy war against Rana Sangha. He said They were battling for the honor of their religion. He promised not to drink wine again, and then he walked away. Surprisingly, there was a positive response; everyone swore that they would fight to the end on the Qur’an.

The two armies met on Saturday, March 16th, 1527.  Babur utilized the same methods that he had used at Panipat to defeat his enemies. Babur attacked in the evening. His’s army fought with great valor and killed Ranga Sangha army bruttaly.  Rana Sangha escaped from the battlefield with some of his warrior but after just two years later, he died. He ordered the construction of a skull tower near the camp and adopted the title of Ghazi, which means “the Champion of Faith.” He made every effort to establish himself on the Indian subcontinent. As a result of the victory, he switched from Kabul to Hindustan, where he consolidated his power.

Babur Death

Babur fell sick in 1530 and the died in same year. He was succeeded by his son  Humayun at 22 years old. Firstly, Babur got buried in Agra, but later, his remains transferred to Kabul as per his wishes. 

Babur’s Autobiography 

Babur wrote his autobiography “Baburnama.” Akbar the great translated it into Persian. 

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