Bahadur Shah Zafar 1
The death of Aurangzeb followed a succession conflict between his sons. It ended with the victory of Bahadur Shah I (Prince Moazzam ) against Muhammad Azam Shah.
Following Aurangzeb’s death, Muhammad Azam Shah declared himself the next Mughal Emperor. He traveled towards Agra to take the throne. However, before getting close to Agra, he discovered that his brother, Bahadur Shah-I, had already taken control of the imperial city. As a result, a war started between Azam Shah and Bahadur Shah Zafar I. Azam Shah got defeated and killed in the battle of Jajau on June 8, 1707. Following Azam Shah’s death, Bahadur Shah I ascended to the throne of the Mughal Empire.
Bahadur Shah-I was born on the 14th of October in 1643 and died in Lahore on the 27th of February in 1712. From 1707–12, he ruled the Mughal Kingdom.
Ruling Period of Bahadur Shah I
Ruling period of Bahadur Shah I followed a compromise and conciliation policy. He worked to bring the Rajputs, the Marathas, the Bundelas, the Jats, and the Sikhs into conciliation. The Marathas and the Sikhs were stronger during his reign. During his reign, he was opposed by the Marathas. In his era, the Mughal kingdom started to fall and other empires started to form.
After becoming the Emperor he became Shia and started supporting Shiaism. In his era on Friday Khutba was changed by giving the Title “Wali” to Hazrat Ali (R.A) in Badshahi mosque Lahore. So after this people refused to offer the Friday Prayer. After such reaction by people, he ordered the restoration of the old Khutba.
Death of Bahadur Shah I
In 1712 he became very sick and died due to illness in Lahore. His body was taken to Delhi and buried there. After the death of Bahadur Shah-I, the Wars of Succession, which was a recurrent occurrence among Mughals, was acute. But, again, it was because the nobles in the Mughal court were so powerful.
The state finances started to deteriorate due to its careless grant of jagirs and promotions when Bahadur Shah-I passed away in February 1712. The remains of the royal riches drained during his reign. In the absence of productive jagirs, the loyalties of noble and man-friendly people were tightened, and governmental machinery got jammed.