Earl of Reading (1921-1926)
Earl of Reading was a British Liberal politician and judge. He was born on 10 October 1860 and died on 30 December 1935. Earl of Reading remained in India as viceroy from 1921 to 1926 after Lord Chelmsford.
In his tenure in 1921, Rabindranath Tagore led the foundation of Visva-Barathi university.
Malabar Rebellion 1921
Malabar Rebellion was started in Kerala in 1921. It was against the British colonial rule and high caste Hindu. Because when British made India it’s colony the high caste Hindu appointed on the higher posts, and they also had many advantages from British. People from Kerala started to protest against it which turned into rebellion.
The main leader of rebellion was Ali Musliyar. It had been a revolt of Muslim tenants against British authority and local Hindu landlords.
The insurrection, which began on August 20, 1921, lasted many months and was marked by numerous bloody incidents. According to certain historical records, the insurrection claimed the lives of approximately 10,000 people, including 2,339 rebels.
Khilafat Movement 1918-1922
The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joined the war in support of Germany during World War I. However, Turkey and Germany were defeated in the war. The lands of Ottoman Empire (Turkey) were distributed among Greece, France, Britain and France. This treaty was converted into many new European countries.
The Indian Muslims were in a difficult situation throughout the conflict because they had deep love with Ottoman Empire. The Muslim of India started to put pressure on British to not divide the Ottoman Empire and protect the holy places of Muslims. But British did not fulfill any demand.
The Muslim were very angry, and they revolted against the British-Indian government. Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Maulana Shaukat Ali, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, and some other Muslim leaders protested the British government. For that they were imprisoned.
The aims of Khilafat movement were
- Do not change the Demography of Ottoman Empire.
- Do not destroy the Holy places Muslims in Ottoman Empire
In December 1919 leader of Muslim league and Congress organized a joint meeting and formed a delegation. The delegation was sent to Britain under Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar leadership to put Muslims demands . front of Britain Prime minister Lloyd George. When delegation met Lloyd, he didn’t accept anyone. The delegation came back India unsuccessful.
When delegation came in India, they adopted a new strategy to pressurize the British. Muslim League and Congress started the Non-Cooperation movement under the leadership of Gandhi.
Khilafat Movement and Non-Cooperation movement had same features.
- Return all titles of Government.
- Boycott of legislature assemblies
- Boycott the courts
- Withdrawal student from educational institutions.
- Resign from all government posts.
- Started the civil disobedience movement
People acted on these things instantly specially Muslims. Thousands of students stopped to go schools and colleges, government servants resigned from posts.
On the instructions of Gandhi, Muslim ulama issued a fatwa and declared India as Dar-ul-Harab. Nearly twenty Thousand Muslim migrated from India to Afghanistan after selling their properties in very less value. But on the other hand, Afghanistan closed its border, so it created a lot of problem for Muslims. Thousands of Muslims children and old persons due to this migration. It is known as “Hijrat Movement 1920“.
Non-Cooperation Movement 1920-1922
After the Khilafat movement and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, leaders of Muslim league and Congress started the Non-Cooperation movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Non-Cooperation movement ignited the movement of independence very effectively. From 5-September,1920-Feb 1922 it disturbs the British government very badly.
Gandhi travelled all over India during the Non-Cooperation movement and address the Indian people. In March 1920, he published a manifesto outlining the concept of the noncooperation movement.
Features of Non-Cooperation Movement
- Gandhi requested to people to return the titles of Government.
- It was said to people do not send your children in educational institute.
- boycott the legislative councils.
- Encourage the People to reject the foreign goods.
- people do not give the taxes .
- people resign from British Army.
Suspension of Non-Cooperation Movement and Khilafat Movement
- In the aftermath of the Chauri-Chaura tragedy in 1922, Gandhiji called to stop both movements in February 1922.
Chauri Chaura Incident 1922
On 4 February 1922, a large group of protesters participating in the Non-cooperation movement clashed with police, who opened fire, at Chauri-Chaura in the Gorakhpur district of the United Province (modern Uttar Pradesh) in British India. In retaliation, protesters attacked and burned down a police station, killing all its occupants.
Three civilians and 23 police officers were killed in the incident. As a direct result of this incident, Mahatma Gandhi, who was adamantly opposed to violence, put an end to the Non-cooperation Movement on a national scale on February 12, 1922.
He was succeeded by Lord Irwin.
Khilafat Movement upsc,Khilafat Movement upsc,Khilafat Movement upsc,Chauri Chaura Incident in hindi,Chauri Chaura Incident in hindi