Firoz Shah Tughlaq
In history, Firoz Shah Tughlaq was a ruler of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. He was born in 1309. His father’s name was Rajab, and he was the son of a Hindu princess from Dipalpur. He ascended to the throne of Delhi when his cousin Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq in 1351.
Rule of Firoz Shah Tughlaq
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq was heavily dependent on Malik Maqbul, his commander (who accepted Islam after being arrested).
- The Sultan referred to him as khan-i-Jahan, which signified “true king.”
- When Firoz Shah Tughlaq went on adventures, Malik Maqbul acted as ruler.
- To prevent additional regions from gaining autonomy, he chose not to reconquer territories that had split away.
- He made some necessary concessions to the scholars and avoided acts that were un-Islamic.
- He forbade Muslim females from visiting holy people’s graves to worship.
- Firoz gave the armed forces the inheritance principle. Officers were allowed to relax and enjoy themselves while their offspring were drafted into the army in their stead. The officers were not paid in cash but rather from the towns’ land revenue.
- In his era, Islamic literature was translated into Sanskrit and Persian languages.
Achievements of Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Firoz Shah Tughlaq devoted much of his time to improving his kingdom’s infrastructure. Among other things, he built schools, hospitals, river canals, reservoirs, and rest houses. He also rebuilt the Qutub Minar (which was built firstly by Qutb-din-Aibek) after an earthquake damaged it.
He established the Diwan-i-Khairat, or charity office.
He established the Diwan-i-Bundagan, or slave department.
For the sake of merchants and other travelers, he constructed Sarais (the rest house).
- He followed the “Iqtadari model”.
- He established Firozabad, Fatehabad, Jaunpur, and Hissar four new towns
- He founded Darul-Shifa, Bimaristan, and Shifa Khana hospitals.
- He excavated many irrigation canals and built 150 wells, 100 bridges, and 50 dams.
He also founded Diwan-i-lstibqaq, which provides financial assistance to the underprivileged.
He constructed canals from
- Ghaggar to Firozabad
- The Yamuna to the city of Hissar
- Hansi in Haryana to Mandvi and Sirmour Hills
- Sutlej to the Ghaggar
He created the largest ‘baoli in Delhi
The baoli inside Ferozabad’s citadel is one of his great structures. The citadel is officially known as Kotla-i-Feroz Shahi (the Feroz Shah fortress), but it is more commonly known as Feroz Shah Kotla. This fort is now a popular site for those who believe in djinns and want their desires or difficulties to be fulfilled.
Administrative Reforms of FirozShah Tughlaq
- He canceled all of “Mohammed-bin-Tughlaq’s (agricultural) loans.
- He increased the revenue officers’ pay.
- He abolished all illegitimate and unjust taxes.
He introduced four significant taxes:
- Kharaj – a tenth of the land’s production
- Khams: a portion of the treasure was taken (four-fifth was left for the soldiers)
- Poll Tax (Jizya)
- Zakat is a religious tax imposed on Muslims for specific religious purposes.
- He imposed Jizya on the Brahmins.
- He also introduced various taxes, including an irrigation fee, a garden tax, an octroi tax, and a sales tax.
- Firoz outlawed all forms of harm and torture.
These all are the administrative reforms of FirozShah Tughlaq.
Importance of Firoz Shah Tughlaq in Medieval Indian History
- Firoz established his authority and made his kingdom strong financially instead of capturing others’ kingdoms.
- He wrote an autobiography, Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi
- He was a patron of Zia-ud-din Barani, a scholar.
- Several Sanskrit texts on medicine, science, and the arts were translated into Persian under his reign.
Death of Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz died in 1388, at the mature age of eighty-three. He could not prevent the empire’s dissolution, which had begun during his predecessor’s reign, and the speed of disintegration accelerated following his death. Moreover, there were rebellions in the empire’s outlying regions. The kingdom’s weakness attracted foreign attacks. After ten years of his death, Taimur invaded India in 1398 and plundered Multan, Delhi, and other important cities in the northwest. He was succeeded by Nasir-ud-Din Shah Tughlaq (the last Ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty).
Death of Firoz Shah Tughlaq,Achievements of Firoz shah tughlaq