Ghulam Muhammad (Third Governor General of Pakistan) was born in Lahore in 1895. Ghulam Muhammad was from a middle-class family. After completing the graduate from Aligarh University he joined India’s Accounts Services. Before the First World War, he worked for the Railway Board but later joined the General Supplies and Purchase Department. The largest SUV manufacturer in India was founded by him in 1945 as part of the Mohindra & Mohammad Company, which is today known as Mahindra & Mahindra.
Ghulam Muhammad became the third Governor-General of Pakistan when Liaquat Ali Khan died and Khawaja Nazimuddin became Prime Minister. Ghulam Muhammad was a senior employee in the Indian Civil Service with a strong reputation as a finance expert. As Finance Minister, he was a key member of new government team.
Political Background of Ghulam Muhammad
Ghulam Muhammad was promoted to prominent roles after the World War II, including chief controller of stores and then General-controller of purchasing. After that, he worked as secretary in the Department of Supply.
After World War II he was awarded by “Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE)” for his efforts as a professional accountant. The Nizam of Hyderabad appointed him as an advisor to the Hyderabad State Administration.
Liaquat Ali Khan made political contact with him after World War II. After independence he left Hyderabad for Karachi and joined the first constituent assembly as Finance Minister.
Ghulam Muhammad Finance Minister 1947-1951
As the Finance Minister under Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan cabinet , he helped in creating the historic “Poor Man’s Budget.” With his wide knowledge, he was able to assist the country in overcoming the financial issues. Due to his connections, he convinced the Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Bahawalpur to provide financial backing for Pakistan’s first budget.
Initiatives by Ghulam Muhammad
One of his ideas in 1949 was to host an International Islamic Economic Conference in Karachi, which included Finance Ministers from all Muslim countries. In his address to the Muslim delegates, Ghulam Mohammad proposed the formation of a Muslim economic block.
Ghulam Muhmmad as Governor General 1951-1955
Following the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, Ghulam Mohammad was elected as the third Governor-General by the cabinet, after Khawaja Nazimuddin. After taking over the Position, Ghulam Mohammad began to dominate all aspects of the country’s affairs to limit the Prime Minister’s abilities. When Khawaja Nazimuddin and his government attempted to oppose Ghulam Mohammad’s undefined controlling authority, the Governor-General Ghulam Muhammad removed Prime Minister Khawaja Nazimuddin using non-mandatory powers under the temporary constitution.
After dismissing Khawaja Nazimuddin, Pakistan’s Ambassador to the United States, Mohammad Ali Bogra was chosen as the country’s next Prime Minister. His order was contested in the Sindh High Court by the president of the legislative assembly, Molvi Tameezuddin; the court Chief Justice “ Sir George Consttantine” annulled the Governor-General action but the Supreme Court reversed the ruling in favor of the Governor-General. At that time the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was Justice Munir.
During this time Ghulam Muhammad became sick and paralysis in his body. Due to this Iskandar Mirza was appointed as Acting Governor-General. A short time afterward Iskandar Mirza removed Ghulam Mohammad from his position and became permanent Governor-General. On 29 August 1956 he was died and buried in Karachi.
Third Governor General of Pakistan,