History of Gupta Empire
In history the Gupta empire ruled India from 3rd century to 543 C.E. It was founded by Sri Gupta. In the early stages, it was a minor kingdom in eastern India. Later it conquered the areas under the Kushan Empire and expanded its territories. It was on its zenith from 319 C.E. to 467 C.E. under Chandragupta I, Samudra-Gupta, and Chandragupta II. This era is recognized as the Golden age of Indian because Agriculture, Medicine, Mathematics and trade sectors grow a lot in this era. In history Gupta Empire was most flourished empire.
The decimal Notation system in Subcontinent was introduced first time during the Gupta empire. The Guptas’ initial Empire included Madhya Pradesh and Bihar, with Prayag (Uttar Pradesh U. P).as their capital. The Guptas used iron reserves in central India and south India (Bihar) effectively and efficiently, which help them to dominate speedily in the Subcontinent. They traded silk with the Byzantine empire (eastern Roman Empire) at that time and made a strong diplomatic relation with Byzantine. The Gupta Empire also created the unification in the Subcontinent.
Gupta Empire Rulers
The Gupta Empire rulers given below. Among all rulers of Gupta Empire , ChandraguptaI,Samudragupta,
Chandragupta II were most powerful emperors.
Gupta Empire Rulers Reign Period Sri Gupta 240 CE to 280 CE Ghatotkacha 280 CE to 319 C.E Chandragupta I 319 CE to 335 CE Samudragupta 335 CE to 375 CE Chandragupta II 376 CE to 413 CE Kumaragupta 415 CE to 455 CE Skandagupta 455 CE to 467 CE Vishnugupta Known as the last ruler (540 CE to 550 CE)
The Gupta rulers learned the value of having cavalry from the Kushans, and Chandragupta I created a large army. He conquered a large area with his strong army. He also defeated the Lichchhavi kingdom (which existed in Magadha modern-day Bihar). Chandragupta-I gained possession of large iron mines close to his territory after defeating the Lichchhavi kingdom and married Lichchhavi Princess Kumaradevi.
Under the Chandragupta-I Gupta became Master in Metallurgy (the process of making iron products like swords). Steel also became a valuable trade item for Guptas. The territorial rulers of various regions of India were unable to defend themselves from Chandragupta-I due to his overwhelming and strong armed troops.
He issued coins with the name of his queen and own. He took the title Maharajadhiraja (great king of kings). He succeeded in transforming a tiny kingdom into a large Kingdom. His kingdom included modern-day Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, and Bihar. Pataliputra was his capital. He is regarded as first great ruler of the Gupta Empire.
Samudra Gupta Empire (approximately 335–375 CE) was a military mastermind who promoted the kingdom’s expansion. Samudra Gupta shifted his attention to South India after conquering the rest of North India. By the end of his Southern Campaign, Samudra Gupta added a large Southern part of it to his Empire. The Gupta Empire is thought to have stretched from the Himalayas in the north to the headwaters of the Krishna and Godavari rivers in the south and from Balkh, Afghanistan in the west , Brahmaputra River in the east.
Samudra Gupta was highly sensitive to the raj dharma (King’s responsibilities) and was very careful to follow the teachings of Arthashastra and Kautilya (teachers) that how the kingdom should be governed effectively. Samudragupta performed the Asvamedha (horse sacrifice) after the conquest of the regions. Samudra Gupta is known as the “Indian Napoleon” due to his military accomplishments. Under Samudra Gupta the empire went on its peak.
He gave enormous amounts of money to a variety of charitable causes, notably the expansion of education. He was a poet and musician, in addition to being a brave king and capable administrator. The Allahabad Pillar, an inscription most likely commissioned by later Gupta emperors, is most expressive about his humanitarian traits. Samudra Gupta was also a firm believer in developing friendships among different religious groups.
Chandragupta II was a good monarch, skillful leader, and administrator, and he ruled between 380-414 CE. He stretched his reign to the shore of the Arabian Sea by conquering the satrap of Saurashtra (Saurashtra is a coastal area in Gujarat, India). He was also called Vikramaditya due his brave ventures. Chandragupta II built his second capital in Ujjain to govern the enormous Empire more effectively. He also cared to reinforce the navy. The Tamralipta and Sopara seaports in Saurashtra became important places for marine trade under his regin.
He was well-known for his generous behavior to many charity organizations, orphanages, and hospitals. Rest houses were established on the side of the route for passengers. During this time, the Gupta Empire reached its peak, and all aspects of life were characterized by tremendous advancement.
Gupta Empire golden age
Gupta Empire golden age was started during the period of Chandragupta I and it flourished greatly during Samudra Gupta and Chandragupta II. Chandragupta II’s tenure contained the government’s most significant advancement in science, art, philosophy, and religion. The court of Chandragupta II became even more critical because “Navaratnas” or “the Nine Jewels,” who brought forward progress in many academic areas, were part of his court.
The creative innovation of Gupta Empire Golden Age developed splendid buildings, including palaces and temples, sculptures, and top-quality paintings. The walls of Buddhist temples and monasteries were decorated with vibrant wall art of a kind. These portrayed events from the life of Buddha, monk and philosopher, who lived in the eastern section of the Indian sub-continent from the 6th to the 4th C.E. Some shrines recovered from the mountains, while dark, with paintings and sculptures, have been adorned. In Gupta Empire Buddhism flourished in the sub continent
Decline of Gupta Empire
Kumaragupta I (approximately 415 – CE 455) governed the enormous kingdom with ability after his father’s death, Chandragupta II. He maintained peace and even combat a tribe known as Pushyamitra. His son Skandagupta (455 – 467 CE) was also capable ruler. He performed many construction works for the welfare of the inhabitants, including the reconstruction of a dam at Sudarshan Lake in Gujarat.
The dynasty was devastated by domestic disputes after Skandagupta’s death. The kings were unable to control such a massive empire by former kings. The Huns and other foreign forces continually attacked them. Therefore, the economic well-being of the Empire started to weakened. Furthermore, the monarchs were more indulgent than in their preparation to face the adversaries’ challenges. Later the Huns arrived to plague the Empire and collapsed the hard Empire about 550 at last.
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