Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun was the Mughal emperor of the early Mughal period. Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor of the Mughal Empire who ruled from 1530-1540 and then 1555-1556. He was born when his father Babur tried to extend his dominion in Kabul, on the 17th of March, 1508. He was died in Delhi, India, in January 1556.
During his childhood era, he followed his father. At the age of eighteen, he fought against the Lodi Dynasty in Panipat along with his father. He then took part in the conquest of Agra and was dispatched in the far east of the empire to calm the valley of the Ganges. Finally, under his father leadership he got the governorship of Badakhshan in 1528, a territory near South Tajikistan and North Afghanistan. Linguistically, he retained the usage of Chagatai, a Turkish-derived language greatly influenced by his father and grandparents.
Ascend the Throne
In 1530 when he was 22, his father died. So he divided his territory with his sons. He gave Delhi to Humayun and Kabul kingdom to his youngest son, Kamran Mirza. But there was more problem for Humayun because he had the threat from Bahadur Shah and Sher Shah Suri.
Humayun VS Bahadur Shah
Bahadur Shah was a local ruler of Gujrat. When Babur died, he decided to expand his kingdom and annex Delhi. But there was a problem for Bahadur Shah, and he had to fight with Humayun on North side and on his south there were Portugues (who wanted to reign over India, to boost trade and commerce). For this purpose Bahadur Shah had granted shelter to Mahdi Khwaja, Humayun’s brother-in-law, who claimed the Delhi throne.
He also gave asylum to several Lodi prince who were Humayun’s adversaries and sought to reclaim their lost territory from the Mughals. To extend his terrority Bahadur started military campaigns and seized Malwa, Chanderi, Ranthambore, as well as the fortress of Chittoor. Chittoor was under the control of Rajputs at that time. Rajputs asked for assistance from Humayun. Humayun proceeded to Chittor, but he changed his mind and decided not to fight Bahadur Shah at that time.
Emperor Humayun remained in In Mandsaur, 60 miles from Chittoor and inspected Bahadur Shah’s route to return to Gujarat from Chittoor. When Bahadur Shah got the news about Humayun, he changed his way to back Gujrat through Mandsaur. No war happen between Humayun VS Bahadur Shah there. Bahadur went from Mandu to Champney then Cambay, and ultimately Goa. Humayub took advantage of this and all areas of of Malwa and the Gujarat in 1535.
After that, Emperor Humayun appointed his brother (Askari) governor of Gujarat. But, Askari was unskilled in his position and was incompetent. Taking full advantage of thsis situation, Bahadur Shah attacked at Gujrat again and recaptured it.
Humayun and Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri was an Afghan leader at Humayun’s time who rose to prominence. He entered the service of Mughal army and served Babur in 1527-1528, who rewarded him by gifting him property. Sher Shah proceeds to conquer Bihar, joins the Sultan of Bengal, and establishes an independent empire. Humayun was concerned about the eastern half of his empire, eaten by this erstwhile ally. After finishing the Gujarat war, he traveled to Bihar instead of marching to the capital.
Battle of Chausa
In 1539, Sher Khan launched a foray into Bihar, defeating Humayun’s army at Chausa on the banks of the Ganges. Sher Khan defeated Humayun in the Battle of Chausa on June 26, 1539. He declared himself Sher Shah Suri after seizing control of Delhi.
Battle of Kannauj
The Battle of Kannauj took place on May 17, 1540, in Uttar Pradesh, India. Humayun and Sher Shah had already fought a battle in the Battle of Chausa before the Battle of Kannauj.
Emperor Humayun then traveled to Gaur and laid siege to that city to reclaim his control. But in the interim, Sher Shah moved west and captured different territories.
In 1540, he rebuilt a new army and resumed leadership of Bihar to fight Sher Shah Suri, who finally established an empire over the north-east of India, but again this time Humayun loste the war at Kannuj in 1540. After this war, Humayun went to Lahore, but when Sher Shah Suri reached there. So he left Lahore for for Sindh with some men. After 10 years of ruling from 1530-1540, he lost the Mughal Empire. His wife Hamida Bano was pregnant during this journey and she gave birth to Akbar at Umerkot.
Humayun and Kamran battle
After defeat from Sher Shah Suri, Humayun tried to get help from his brother Kamran Mirza, king of Kabul, but he refused to help and even tried to kill him. In this hard time because Akbar was too little during this journey so he preferred to left him on way and traveled to Persia in 1544 instead Afghanistan to get help from Shah Tahmasp I. Kamran Mirza’s soldiers caught Akbar and brought him in Kabul. Humayun persuaded Shah Tahmasp I to support him, as his father, Babur helped his ancestor before. Shah Tahmasp-I welcomed warmly Humayun and agreed to help him.
Humayun with the help of Shah invaded Afghanistan and conquered Kandahar and later he siege Kabul. In kabul Humayun and kamran fought a sever battle. His son Akbar, was in the custody of his uncle at the time of the siege. Kamran exposed Akbar to Humayun at the walls of Kabul Fort throughout the assault, attempting to persuade his father to cease the bombardment. But Humayun didn’t quit to fight and captured Kabul.
Humayun return to India
After Humayun and kamran battle, Humayun made his brother ( Kamran Mirza ) blind. Later, Kamran Mirza went for Hajj, and he died in the Arabian desert during the journey. After that Humayun reconquest of the Mughal Empire restarted, battle after battle.
- Firstly, he conquered Peshawar in 1554,
- Then conquered Lahore in 1555,
- Then Depalpur in 1555,
- Finally conquered Macchi Bhawan in 1555.
After 15 years from 1555-1556 in exile, this last victory in Macchi Bhawan against the Sher Shah Suri’s descendants Afghans allowed him to reclaim the throne of Agra. After reclaiming his empire, he relocated to Agra and proceeded to lay out the region. But unfortunately, in 1556, he died due to a severe fall.
Humayun and his father Babur’s adventures are highly similar in the sense. They inherited a region, expanded it via military victories. After it, they reclaimed their possessions by force but died before they could organize the empire. It was his habit whenever he listened to Azaan, and he performed ” the Sajda” and one day, while on stairs, he performed ” Sajda” but fell. Due to this, he got injured and died. he was succeeded by his son Akbar the Great.
Humayun VS Bahadur Shah,Battle of Kannauj,Humayun and kamran battle