Indo-Pak War of 1965
Indo-Pak war of 1965 war was the second dispute between India and Pakistan on Jammu and Kashmir. This conflict also engaged the United States and also the Soviet Union. Because after World War II, the international community was divided into two groups: the Capitalist group led by the United States and the Communist group led by the Soviet Union. The struggle to become a Superpower between the USA and USSR resulted in several battles in various world areas.
The Vietnam War (1955-75) and the Korean War (1950-53) were long-running conflicts between capitalist and communist groups. Both were expanding their power and authority as widely as possible. South Asia is always the center of World power; therefore, in the 1965 Indo-Pak war, USA and USSR were involved completely. India was an ally of the USSR, and Pakistan was an ally of the USA.
Reason of Indo-Pak war 1965
In 1965, Pakistani and Indian forces clashed over disputed land along the border between the two nations, sparking a new round of conflict. To free Muslim areas from Indian aggression, Pakistan started to help the freedom fighters of Kashmir. It leads to a full-scale war between the two countries.
Operation Gibraltar 1965 in Kashmir
Operation Gibraltar 1965 was the codename of the Pakistani army operation to aid the freedom fighters of Indian Occupied Kashmir. The primary purpose of Operation Gibraltar 1965 was to free Kashmir from Indian occupation. For it, 7000 Pakistani Guerilla fighters entered Indian occupied Kashmir through different places in August 1965. Those people started to fight against the Indian army and damaged them badly. Later on, due to no supply line and communication, this Operation Gibraltar 1965 failed, and almost all people died while fighting.
Motivation Factors of Operation Gibraltar
- After the devastating defeat by China in 1962, India appeared to be a defeated country with low morale. Therefore, General Ayub Khan intended to take advantage of this chance.
- Shastri was a weak leader of India who could not afford a significant attack against Pakistan.
- China has degraded India’s military image.
- Pakistani leaders believed that the inhabitants of Kashmir valley would embrace any intrusion from the Pakistani side of the border.
Operation Grand Slam 1965
When the Indian army started the preparation to attack Pakistan, then Pakistan army started “Operation Grand Slam in 1965.” The main aim of this Operation Grand slam 1965 was to capture the Akhnoor village bridge. Because Akhnoor was the only bridge that connected Kashmir with India, this Operation was a twin operation of Operation Gibraltar. General Akhtar Malik led it. When Operation Gibraltar failed, General Akhtar asked President Ayub to start the Operation, but he didn’t allow it at that time.
At that time, the Indian army was in a weak position on Akhnoor. Pakistan was in a much better place because the Indian army had not enough army men or infantry. Then Akhtar Malik approached Foreign Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto for permission. He came to President Ayub to take permission. On September 1, General Akhtar placed the entire force in all areas. On the second day before the attack, General Akhtar Hussain Malik was replaced by General Yahya. This change damaged the Operation badly. General Yahya was delayed till September 6. Operation Grand Salam started, but it couldn’t give the result which was expected.
Meanwhile, the Indian army made their position more vital and opened up new fronts in Lahore and Sialkot. Pakistan Army Chief started to replace the military to counter the Indian Army attack in the Punjab region.
Indo Pak War 1965
From 6-September 1965-20-September 1965, the war remained on a full scale between the two countries. On September 20, the USA asked for a cease-fire, India accepted it instantly, but Pakistan accepted it on 23-September.
An attack on Lahore and Sialkot sparked a full-scale war on international frontiers. In this war, Pakistan Air Force played a crucial role. The Pakistani air force was superior to the Indian air force. It severely damaged the Indian Air force and Indian army. Two states signed an agreement called the Tashkent Declaration and declared a cease-fire at the end of the conflict. Pakistan and India signed a peace agreement in Tashkent.
Tashkent Declaration 1966
Lal Bahadur Shastri, the Indian Prime Minister, and Ayub Khan, the Pakistani President, met on January 4, 1966, in Tashkent. The Tashkent Declaration of 1966 was a deal signed by the two leaders of the two countries.
Aleksey Kosygin, the Soviet premier, had invited the parties to Tashkent and established an agreement between the two countries.According to Tashkent Declaration 1966 both the parties decided to return their armed troops before August 5, 1965. The other Tashkent Declaration points are given below.
Tashkent Declaration points
- Following the United Nations Charter, Pakistan’s President and India’s Prime Minister agreed to promote positive, peaceful, and neighborly relations.
- It was agreed by the Pakistani President and the Indian Prime Minister that they would end the war.
- They promised not to participate in one other’s matters and to keep their distance.
- All actions that could harm the other country were discouraged, and all activities that could build a favorable relationship between the two countries were to be encouraged.
- They both agree that Pakistan’s and India’s High Commissioners should return to their posts and make efforts to develop both nations’ economies and societies.
- There is an agreement to increase bilateral commerce and develop economic connections. They also committed to improving their communication and exchange of cultural information.
- As part of their agreement, both leaders pledged to pass legislation that would allow prisoners of war to be repatriated.
- They agreed to discuss refugee issues in the future. As part of the deal, they decided to return any property taken by either side as a result of the battle.
Results of Tashkent Declaration 1966
As a result of this statement at the ministerial level, all talks were made irrelevant. No development was accomplished because public and government views on the Kashmir problem differed significantly.
When people heard this news, it rocked them to their core, and they began to argue that Pakistan had won the war on the battlefield but lost it on paper. When Ayub Khan made the Tashkent proclamation, it severely damaged his reputation and contributed to his demise of popularity.
After this, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur died. After him, no one else acknowledged this pronouncement, and the next government rejected it as well.
Tashkent Declaration points,Tashkent Declaration points