Before the Vedic Age, there was a Harrapan civilization in 1500 BCE in the subcontinent. At that time subcontinent consisted of isolated villages, and the majority of people were engaged in agriculture, hunting and herding. At that time, the northern part of the subcontinent was more developed than the southern part.
From (1500–500 BCE) the subcontinent era is called the Vedic Age era. This period takes its name from a series of religious books, “the Vedas,” written throughout this era. The people who wrote it are referred to as Vedic people of Indo-Aryan people. These people were not from India. Rather they arrived as immigrants from Central Asia through mountain routes of Afghanistan and Pakistan to India. The Indo-Aryans established in Punjab initially but then moved east along the Ganges and finally settled in the northern part of India. They became impressed by local life’s lifestyle, linguistic and religious beliefs. During this era, the history of India altered significantly. Several kingdoms developed after the Vedic age, and Hinduism and the Indian social structure began to shape.
The Veda, written in Sanskrit between 1500 to 900 B.C. The Upanishads, written 800 and 600 B.C.; The Manusmriti, also known as Laws of Manu, was written around 250 B.C.; and Ramayana written around 250 B, C. The Mahabharata, written between 200 B.C and A.D. 200 that Hinduism was popularized.
The Vedas taught Hindu cosmology (theory of the world’s origin). The Upanishads supplied this cosmology with a theoretical grounding. The Manusmriti give details on how the society should run. Manusmriti was the first Hinduism book translated into English in 1776 by William Jones. The Ramayana was also written in the Vedic Age era. It is consists of an epic story of Prince Rama’s attempt to rescue his beloved wife Sita from Ravan with the assistance of an army of monkeys. Ramayana is consists of 24,000 verses. The Mahabharata is also a book of an epic in which the two branches of a family – the Pandavas and Kauravas – struggle for the kingdom of Hastinapura. Customs and explain the priests’ duty as an addition to the Vedas. It shaped the abstract principles presented in previous books. Sutras are further additions to the laws and ceremonies.
Shruti (“What Is Heard”) and Smriti (“What Is Remembered”) are the two main sections of Hindu holy scriptures. The Shruti — which comprises the Upanishads and Vedas — are regarded as more divine books. The Smriti (which contains Mahabharata, Ramayana, the Bhagavad Gita, and many others) are considered those books listened to by great scholars from God and then written is own words. Hindu Shruti-Smriti is based on their origin, not their mode. As a result, Shruti relates to what the sages (pandits) heard firsthand from the Gods, but Smriti is considered those texts written and memorized. Therefore, Shruti is regarded as more authentic than Smriti.
The Vedas, which in Sanskrit means “knowledge,” is the ancient holy writings of Hinduism. They are said to be the oldest religious texts in the world. It contains tens of thousands of hymns expressing nature, traditions, and spiritual secrets.
The ancient poems of Vedas were composed and sang in Punjab around 1500 B.C., and these became the foundation of Hinduism in India. Originally the chants of Rig Veda, Sama Veda, and Yajur Veda were singing in temples by the pandits. These hymns are considered among most modern Hindus as sacred sounds transmitted from ancient times to humanity and as the foundation of the Hindu heritage. The Atharva Veda, a fourth book, offers several different formulations for needs, such as medicine and love charms. Hindus believe that their noble people received the texts straight from God and passed them down through the centuries orally for hundreds or even thousands of years.