Lord John Shore
In 1768 John Shore appointed as a trainee clerk of the East India Company. Then he moved to Calcutta to work as a writer (apprentice clerk). He served as Governor-General from 1793 to 1798 after the Cornwallis . He was a master in the Bengal revenue system. John Shore and Warren Hastings worked together in the company’s Secret Political Department. John Shore learned Persian and Bangla while working for the Secret Political Department. He married an Indian woman. From 1772-1785, Shore served as Warren Hastings’ chief revenue advisor.
Bengal Revenue Board decided to appoint John Shore as a member of the Governor-General Council in 1787 due to his extensive understanding of Bengal revenue administrations and institutions, as well as the traditions and habits of Bengal people. Aside from being a member of the Council, he was also serving as president of the board of revenue, the country’s top administrative authority. Shore was largely responsible for initiating and implementing the revenue administration changes between 1786 and 1790. Shore disagreed with Lord Cornwallis on the issue of permanent settlement. In his opinion, Permanent Settlement should not be concluded before sufficient information about land resources has been collected.
In his minute, John Shore condemned the current form of government, questioned the functioning of the Calcutta Supreme Court of Judiciary, and made ideas as to how the government could be constituted in the benefit of the length of company control and the wellbeing of the society of Bengal. He proposed that a permanent settlement should be reached after discussing with zamindars and the revenue payable by zamindars should be determined after a thorough examination of the country’s resources.
In contrast to John Shore viewpoint, Lord Charles Cornwallis issued a lengthy letter in favor of the speedy execution of the permanent settlement. But after the shore stance, the Directors of Court reviewed the Shore stance. But the Court, on the other hand, sided with Cornwallis, and the Permanent Settlement was signed in March 1793. As a result of Shore’s logic and expertise, as well as his real care for the company, he was appointed Governor-General after Cornwallis in 1793, shortly after the Permanent Settlement was completed.
The Permanent Settlement’s premature conclusion proved harmful. Due to their overestimation, the majority of zamindars could not pay taxes on time. Public money was generated by selling the lands of the zamindars who had defaulted. About half of Bengal’s zamindar’s property was sold within ten years after the establishment of the permanent settlement under a revenue sale regulation that became known as Sunset Law among the zamindars.
Policy of Non-intervention
Governor-General John Shore avoided conflict and war. Without engaging in foreign conflicts during his five-year term in office, the country was at peace. He disagreed with Cornwallis on numerous issues, including Permanent Settlement, but Governor-General Shore adhered to Cornwallis‘ rule.
At a period when most company executives were dishonest, Shore was known for his total honesty. It became the norm for business leaders to make a quick profit by looting the local population. Shore, on the other hand, was an exception. He was an honest person.
1793 Charter Act
The Charter Act 1793 was passed by British Parliament to extend the license of the East India Company. This act granted the company the right to do business with India for 20 years more.
More power to Governor-General:
In special cases, the Governor-General had the authority to reject the Council’s majority. As a result, he was given extra authority. The Governor-General and the governors of the other presidencies like Bombay may now overcome the separate councils, and the commander in chief was no longer part of the council of Governor-General.
Separation of revenue and judiciary functions
The courts were reformed, and their powers were revised because of charter act 1793. The revenue management became separated from the judicial powers, which resulted at the end of the Maal Adalats.
Regulations Related to company
The company was permitted to raise its income to 10%. According to this charter, a provision was made that company will pay 5 lakh British Pound to British Government every year after paying the expenditure, wages of employees, and interest.
Second Rohilla War
In 1794, British India and the Rohillas fought the Second Rohilla War. After First Rohilla War in 1774, Faizullah Khan was made as Nawab of Rampur by the British. Faizullah Khan was a capable ruler who died in 1793 and was replaced by his son, Muhammad Ali Khan. But soon Muhammad Ali Khan was overthrown by his younger brother, Ghulam Muhammad Khan Bahadur. Ghulam Muhammad was against the British and he didn’t submit against them. So, the John Shore dispatched an army led by General Sir Robert Abercromby to remove him. In 1794, Ghulam Muhammad’s army of 25 000 Rohillas was defeated by British forces. After this defeat, Ghulam Muhammad was succeeded as Nawab by his nephew, Ahmad Ali Khan Bahadur.
End of Tenure
In 1798 he got retired and he was replaced by the Marquess Wellesley.