Lord Lytton full name was Edward Lytton Bulwer. His wife’s name was Edith Villiers, and they had seven children. He was an English Politician who succeeded as Governor-General of India to Lord Northbrook. He remained as Governor-General from 1876-1880. He was known as ruthless Governor-General due to his policies regarding the Great Indian Famine 1876-1878 and then in the Second Anglo-Afghan war.
Decreased the maximum age of ICS
When the British came to India, they controlled India by the bureaucratic system. British nobles opposed the entry of Indians into the Bureaucracy. So when Lord Lytton became the Governor-General of India, he made an ordinance to decrease the age to oppose the entry of Indians into the civil services. He discouraged Indians from competing in the examination by lowering the maximum eligibility period from 21 to 19 years.
Appointed famine commission.
- In 1876-1878 a Great famine came in India. It destroyed people’s life very severely. Nearly 10 million people died due to this famine. It happened due to the lousy ideology and policy. He was a follower of Darwin’s theory of Survival. But when many people died due to starvation, he established a famine commission to assist the people. The commission granted nearly 1,500,000 rupees for the relief works. It was not enough for people at all.
- THE MACDONNELL COMMISSION was the famine commission appointed by Lord Curzon, after a long period of 20 years, when Lord Lytton had tried to formulate the general principles of such famines. The MacDonnell Commission also investigated the famine commission of Lord Lytton.
Vernacular press act
The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 was a highly controversial law that restricted the independence of the press. Lord Lytton’s rule was mainly remembered for his most divisive press policy in 1878. Previously, the Dramatic Performances Act (1876) was passed to prohibit the creation and presentation of supposedly seditious works. The Vernacular Press Act was enacted to suppress treason propaganda distributed through vernacular media. The Bill was introduced by a Law Member of the Council, who described how publications and magazines promoted treason propaganda against the government.
The viceroy, Lord Lytton, criticized the magazine and newspaper. He thought that these magazines and newspapers could create an upspring against the government.
The Act required all sheets of paper articles to be submitted to the police before publishing. The police were to judge what was seditious news. Many newspapers were banned, and their editors were imprisoned because of this Act. This restrictive move provoked strong criticisms. All native organizations, regardless of religion, caste, or creed, condemned this Act. All India’s influential leaders criticized the Act as unnecessary and unjustifiable.
Second Anglo-Afghan War
The Second Anglo-Afghan War was fought between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan, which lasted from 1878 to 1880. Britain was worried about the Russian Empire’s growing power in Afghanistan, which it saw as a direct danger to British India. Because Afghanistan had a diplomatic relationship with Russia. And Afghanistan refused to establish a connection with the British. The British-Indian Army attacked and seized Afghanistan.
Soon the Emir Sher Ali died, and his son Muhammad Yaqoob succeeded him. The British pushed the new Emir to sign the Treaty of Gandamak, which sought to guarantee British interests by compelling Afghanistan to give Britain control of its foreign policy. After this treaty, an upspring sparked against the British, and people killed the British representatives in Afghanistan. It led to war. In 1880 the British defeated the Afghan army in Kandahar. After this British appointed Abdu-r-Rehman as Emir of Afghanistan. After accomplishing their goals, the British permitted Afghanistan to remain independent as a buffer between their Indian territories and the Russian Empire.
Delhi Darbar 1877.
The Delhi Durbar was an Indian imperial-style mass assembly organized by the British in Delhi to mark Queen Victoria as Emperor of India.Delhi Darbar was held three times, in 1877,1903,1911. Queen was given the title “Qaisar-i Hind”, meaning “Emperor of India”.
Royal Titles Act 1876.
The Royal Titles Act was one of the famous imperialistic measures. The aim of this Act was that only British Imperial titles would be used in India. In 1876 the Queen began to use it in her signature. In 1893 it appeared on the British coin.
This was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which officially made Queen Victoria as EMPRESS OF INDIA.
He was succeeded by Marquess of Ripon.