Lord Wavell (1943-1947)
Lord Wavell was Governor-General of India From 1943 to 1947 after Lord Lithlithgow.
C.R Formula or Rajaji Formula 1944
The Quit India movement ended without any outcome. After that it was clear for Congress, no movement can be successful without the support Muslim league against British government. To Solve the political deadlock between Muslim league and Congress a formula was presented by Rajagopalachar in 1944 which is called Rajaji formula. According to Rajaji formula it was proposed.
- Muslim League and congress should unite against the British for independence.
- When the British transfer the Power after that Pakistan will be created.
- Where population of Muslim and Hindu is equal, there plebiscite will be occur.
Jinnah- Gandhi Talks- 1944
Jinnah Gandhi talks held in Bombay from 9 September 1944-27 September 1944 to solve the political problem Between Muslim League and Congress on the basis of Rajaji Formula or C.R formula. Jinnah was not ready to accept this formula. Because he was not in favor of independence from the British without the creation of Pakistan. Jinnah Gandhi talks also failed without any outcome
However, Sikhs were also not in favor of this formula because due to this formula, Punjab could be divided. It was also that Sikhs had a significant significance, but they were not in the massive amount at that time.
Simla Conference 1945
Lord Wavell called a simla conference in 1945 of all parties in India to solve the problems in India. This conference is called Shimla Conference. In this Conference Lord Wavell presented the “Wavell Plan 1945”.
Wavell plan 1945
- The British Government would introduce reforms in the Government of India Act 1935 if all parties would support the British in WW-II.
- Number of Viceroy’s Executive Council will be increased.
- In that Executive Council, Equal number of Muslim and Hindu.
- Other minorities will also get representation in Council.
- In Council all members will be from India except Commander in Chief and Viceroy or Governor-General of India.
- Defense of India would be in control of the British.
- If this plan gets approved in the Center then the same governance system will be appointed in provinces.
In 1945 the Labor Party won the election in Britain. The Labor Party was in favor of independence of India so Wavell plan 1945 ended without implementation.
In December 1945 elections were held for the central legislative council. Total seats were 102. Muslim League won all 30 reserved seats for Muslim in central Legislative Council. Congress won 57 seats. Akali Dal( Sikh party) won 2 seats , Europeans 08 and independent 8 seats.
Cabinet Mission Plan 1946
The Cabinet Mission was a high-powered mission sent to India by the British Prime Minister “Clement Atlee”. The Cabinet mission 1946 consisted of 3 members and it was headed by the “Pathetic Lawrence”. The objective of the Cabinet mission was “ to discuss the transfer of power”. In this mission Britain and Congress agreed on the independence of United India but Jinnah rejected this proposal. Because Muslims league was victorious in 1945-46, therefore Jinnah had strong stance.
Objectives of the Mission
- To create a body that will write the constitution (the Constituent Assembly of India).
- With the support of the major Indian parties, form an Executive Council.
- To reach an agreement with Indian leaders on the creation of an Indian constitution.
Proposal of Cabinet mission
According to the cabinet mission three groups/sections would be formed from the provinces.
- Group A: Madras, Orissa, Bihar, Central Provinces Bombay, and UP Orissa
- Group B: Punjab, NWFP, Sindh, and Baluchistan
- Group C: Assam and Bengal
- The provinces with a majority of Muslims were divided into two groups, with the remaining sections with a plurality of Hindus placed in one of the groups.
- Defense, foreign affairs, communications, and currency would all be under the central government’s control in Delhi. The provinces would be in charge of the remaining powers.
- A constituent assembly would be formed to write the country’s new constitution. An interim government would be created until a new government could be developed based on the constituent assembly’s constitution.
- The idea of provinces being divided into groups based on Hindu-Muslim majority and vying for control at the center did not appeal to Congress. It was also opposed to the concept of a weak center. The Muslim League was adamant about not changing the proposals.
Direct Action Day 1946
After the 1946 cabinet mission plan failed in finding common ground for both the Muslim league and INC, the Muslim league declared a direct action day on 16 August 1946. This day was because of emphasizing the demand for a separate homeland for the Muslims when the British left India.
- Calcutta experienced widespread rioting as a result of this. On the first day, approximately 4000 people were killed. Killings, rapes, forced conversions, and looting was all part of the riots.
- Communal violence quickly spread across northern India, particularly Bihar. Brutal violence erupted in Noakhali (now Bangladesh).
- The Great Calcutta Killings refers to the violence that occurred during and after Direct Action Day. There were riots on a scale that could be described as genocide in some of the locations.
Interim Government 1946
After the election the Interim Government of India was established on September 2, 1946, to oversee the country’s transition from a British colony to an independent republic.
In this government the Governor-General of India was Lord Wavell, and the Prime Minister was Jawaharlal Nehru. There were 15 ministers in the cabinet. Liaqat Ali khan , Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar, Jogendra Nath Mandal, Abdu Rab Nishtar from Mulism league.
Lord wavell was succeeded by Lord Mountbatten