Lord Willingdon-Second Round table Conference-Communal Award 

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Lord Willingdon,communal award upsc

Lord Willingdon

Lord Willingdon was Governor-General of India from 1931- 1936 after Lord Irwin. In his governance, many events occur including second and Third Round table conferences, Restarting of the Civil Disobedience Movement, the Communal Award by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, the Poona Pact, and the Government Of India Act.

Second or 2 Round table Conference

2 round table conference

Second or 2 Round table Conference

 On September 7, 1931, the 2nd Round table conference started in London. Just two weeks before the Second Round Table conference British Government was Changed, But Prime Minister British was Ramsay MacDonald. The Second Round table conference started in September and ended in December 1931. 

23 princely states Delegates and more than 80 political parties of India Delegates like Sikhs, Muslim league and Indian Liberal Party and Indian National Congress Etc. There were almost 17 Members from the Muslim League, Including Aga Khan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and Allama Muhammad Iqbal.

In this Conference, other depressed Minorities like Untouchable also demanded a separate electorate. Dr. Ambedkar was Representing the Untouchable class of Hindus. He requested a Separate electorate, But Gandhi Opposed that demand of Dr. Ambedkar. Everyone supported the  separate Electorate, Including Muslim League.

Communal Award 

In the second Round Table Conference, British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald announced the communal Award. In the MacDonald award, the principle of Weightage was applied. According to the direction of Weightage. 

  • In Punjab Muslim lost Majority 
  • Sikh got Weightage in Punjab
  • In Bengal, Europeans got the advantage.  
  • doubled Seats of legislatures
  • Untouchable was to be declared as Minority, and they got right of separate electorate. 
  • Allocations were to be made to traders, landlords, and Industrialists.

Civil disobedience Movement

After the failure of the Second Round table Conference, Gandhi came back to India, and he relaunched the Civil disobedience Movement On December 28, 1931.  Congress rejected the MacDonald Award and didn’t participate in the 3rd Round Table Conference.

Third Round table Conference

The third Round table Conference started on November 17 1932 and ended on December 24 1932. Only 46 Delegates attended this Conference. Congress boycott it. Even the opposition party of Britain “Liberal Party” rejected it. So after this paper a “White Paper” was issued.

Pakistan declaration

Ch. Rehmat Ali (Pakistan declaration)

Pakistan Declaration

During the third Round Table Conference Ch. Rehmat Ali published a pamphlet “Now OR Never” in which he purposed the name “Pakistan. It is called Pakistan Declaration. Ch. Rehmat Ali was student in Britain University at that time.

Government of India Act 1935

When Round Table failed to give the future constitution, then a committee was formed under Viceroy Willingdon to form the constitution. Committee submitted a report in Britain Parliament, which was passed and enacted in 1935. It has 14 parts and 10 schedules.

Features of government of india act 1935

  • The system of Dyarchy was abolished in the province but remained in the central.
  • Indian Legislative Assembly had two houses: upper house and lower house.
  • More authority was given to provinces than the center.
  • India was divided into 11 provinces.
  • Special rights were given to the Governor-General and Governor of Provinces. In any situation, they can use it.
  • Federal Court was established. The court consisted of one chief justice and 6 other judges. It was a court privilege to define the constitution.
  • He was succeeded by Lord Linlithgow.
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