Marquess of Lansdowne-Indian Council Act-Factory act 1891-Durand Line

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Durand line agreement

Marquess of Lansdowne

Marquess of Lansdowne was Governor-General of India from 1888-1894 after Earl of Dufferin. His real name was Henry Petty and born in 1845. He was not a competent statesman. His policies increased tensions between Hindus and Muslims.

Indian Council Act 1892

In 1892 British Parliament passed the Indian Council act was passed. Some key provisions of the bills were

  • The number of members of the Governor-General of Council was increased from 12 to 16.
  • The 2/3 members of the council were to be non-official.
  • But the non-official member demand cannot approve until the official member gives the permission. The non-official member could give only recommendations.
  • The member has the right to ask questions which is related to the Public.
  • In the Central and Provincial legislature, the number of non-official members was increased.
  • Zamindars, municipalities, the public finance department, and Universities were empowered to recommend the policies to Provincial Council.
  •  After this act, the Provincial Council has the right to discuss the financial statements every year.
  • The numbers of the Additional Members of the provincial councils were also raised, for Bengal it was 20 and 15 for the Awadh.
  •  The government-approved many bills although the Indian Members strongly opposed them.

Factory act 1891

This was 2nd factory act in India. The first factory act was introduced in 1881.

Marquess of Lansdowne

     A scene of Indian Factory

The key points of the Factory act 1891 act are below.

  • The minimum age was raised from 7 to 9.
  • Maximum eight hours can work in a day.
  • Employment at night for women was banned.
  • For all workers break was given to all workers and one holiday in a week.
  • This act was applicable to all factories.

Durand line agreement

           Durand Line

Durand Line is the international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is about 2750 Km long. It was established when a Durand line agreement was signed in 1893 between Emir of Afghanistan “Abdur-Rehman khan and British diplomat “Mortimer Durand”. After this British recognized Afghanistan as an independent country. In 1901 British made the province to  NWFP(KPK) but swat, Dir, and Chitral remained princely states. After the independence Swat, Dir and Chitral joined Pakistan on 28-July 1969 in the General Yahya era.


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