Marquess of Linlithgow (1936-1943)
Marquess of Linlithgow was a British Unionist politician, agriculturalist, and colonial administrator. He was born in 1887, and died in 1952. Linlithgow was Governor-General or Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943 after Lord Willingdon.
Indian provincial election 1937
Indian provincial election were held in 1937 under the Government of India Act 1935 in all eleven provinces. In this election Congress got a big victory. Congress won in 8 Provinces. Muslim League couln’t make government in any province.
Result Indian provincial election 1937 are given below.
|Provinces||Congress||Muslim League||Other parties won seats||Reserved seats for Muslim||Total Seats|
Pirpur Report 1938
After winning the 1937 Congress formed the government. Congress started the atrocities against the Muslims. In this regard Muslim League tried to bring the grievences of Muslim in front Governor-General Lord Linlithgow. For this A.k Fazul-Haq formed a report in which all details related to atrocities of Congress were mentioned. This report is called pirpur Report.
Indian entry in World War II (1939-1945)
On September 3, 1939, Viceroy Lord Linlithgow declared that India, along with Britain, was at war with Nazi Germany during World War II. The British Raj sent over two and a half million soldiers to fight the Axis powers under British command as part of the Allied Nations.
Day of Deliverance 1939
When Marquess of linlithgow declared India at war, Congress rejected this decision firstly. Later leaders of Congress said they would only join the war if the British made a promise of Independence of United India after war. At that time Muslim League in minroity in Legislative assemblies and secondly Muslims were upset due to atrocities of Congress. So Muslim league supported the Lord Linlithgow.
When marquess of linlithgow rejected the demands of Congress, in reaction Congress resigned from all seats of Assemblies on 22 December 1939. This was very fruitful thing for Muslim league. So Muslim league celebrated 22 December 1939 as “Day of Delivernence”.
The Pakistan Resolution 1940
Muslims were aware of the fact that if the British implemented political reforms in India, they would be a permanent minority in a democratic system, unable to defend their fundamental rights. They made up a quarter of the population of India. They were far less numerous than the Hindu majority. As Muslims were facing difficulties for many years, they were in the search of social, religious and political rights. As the result of all those differences, Muslims then decided to move towards a long-term option which was only the option of a separate homeland. On 23 March 1940 at Minar-e-pakistan Lahore Resolution or the pakistan resolution was passed.
The Cripps Mission 1942
In March 1942, the Cripps Mission came in india. The mission was sent to India through the British government. The main aim of this mission was to get full support of Indians in WW-II. It was headed by Sir Richard Stafford Cripps. It was failed attempt by British.
Why the need for the Cripps Mission 1942?
- Japan was advancing beyond India’s eastern borders, and even in Burma Japan had defeated the British
- Congress had resigned from Assemblies and they were not supporting the government at all. .
- The United States and other allies were pressuring Britain due to the policies in India. Therefore the British government dispatched the Cripps mission to India.
Quit India Movement 1942
Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement on 8 August 1942, at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC). The movement demanded that British rule in India should be ended.
Important points of Quit India Movement
- The Cripps Mission was a failure, and India’s constitution was postponed until the war’s end.
- Among the Indian masses, anti-British and full-independence sentiments had grown in popularity.
- India’s economy had already been shattered by World War II, and militant outbursts were occurring across the country, which were simply channelled through the Quit India Movement.
- Under the leadership of Congress bodies, such as the All India Kisan Sabha and the Forward Bloc, several mass movements with a radical tone have been carried out for over two decades. The Bharat Chhodo Andolan was born out of these movements.
Bengal Famine 1943
During World War II, the Bengal famine of 1943 occurred in British India’s Bengal province. Out of a population of 60.3 million, an estimated 2.1–3 million people died of malnutrition, malaria, and other diseases exacerbated by malnutrition, population displacement, unsanitary conditions, and a lack of health care.
End of Tenure
In 1943, his seven-year term as viceroy, the longest in the Raj’s history, came to an end. He was succeeded by Lord Wavell.