Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II
Shah Alam-II, also known as Al Gauhar, ruled India from 1759 to 1788. When Imad al-Mulk killed “Alamgir II “ he ran from Delhi in 1759. Imad-al-Mulk appointed Shahjahan III as puppet emperor. Najib-ud-Dula gave protection to Shah Alam II and later they gathered a large force to retake Delhi. Shah Alam-II with the help of Najib-ud-Dula defeated the Imad-al-Mulk and gained the throne back. But at that time Shah Alam-II was a weak emperor.
Reign of Shah Alam II
During his reign, Shah Alam’s power was too weak. He was just a dummy king. At that time the Maratha empire was at its peak. The Mughal empire was near to breaking completely. At that time Ahmad Shah Abdali helped him to be saved from the Marathas. Ahmad Shah Abdali along with Shah Alam II and Najib-ud-Dula defeated the Marathas in the 3rd Battle of Panipat.
On the other hand, Mir Jafar became Nawab of Bengal after the killing of Siraj-ud-Dula with the help of the British East India Company after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Shah Alam-II gathered a large army along with Najib-ud-Dula to fight against Mir-Jafar. Because Mir Jafar and Imad- al-Mulk were also planning to kill Shah Alam-II. Shah Alam II overthrew Mir Jafar but soon due to the intervention of the East Indian Company the conflict ended because Mir Jafar had the assistance of Robert Clive.
But soon Mir Jafar died and was replaced by Mir Qasim ( Son-in-law of Mir Jafar). Mir Qasim’s relationship with East India started to decline due to removing the tax exemption by him for East India Company. This thing changed into the battle of Buxar.
Battle of Buxar was Fought in the Year
Battle of Buxar was fought in the year On October 22, 1764, it was fought between Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Rajasthan; Shah Alam-II, the Mughal Emperor; and British East India Company forces. Britain’s East India Company won decisively at Buxar, a town on the Ganges river in Bengal at the time. After this defeat, a treaty was signed between Shah Alam-II and East India Company which is called the “ Treaty of Allahabad ‘‘. According to this treaty, the Dewani Department ( meaning all tax will be collected by East India Company) was given to East India Company in Bengal Province. And from that tax collection, East India Company will give 2.6 million rupees to Shah Alam-II. But for other affairs, a local ruler was appointed by Shah Alam II.
Firstly East India Company appointed Nawab Muhammad Raza khan to collect the Taxes but later in 1774 East India Company appointed Warren Hastings as Governor of Bengal. Later East India Company canceled to pay the tribute to Shah Alam-II the 2.6 million rupees also.
3rd War of Panipat (Marathas/Ahmad Shah Durrani)
The 3rd war of Panipat was fought on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, some 97 kilometers (60 miles) north of Delhi between the Maratha Empire and Ahmad Shah Durrani’s Afghan army, which was backed by Najib-ud-Daulah and Shah Alam II. On the other hand, the Maratha army was commanded by the Sadashivrao Bhau, (Maratha Prime Minister).
Over 125,000 troops took part in the battle, which lasted for days. Both sides suffered losses and gains in the long-running skirmishes. But, after destroying several Maratha flanks, Ahmad Shah Durrani’s forces emerged victoriously on the third battle of Panipat.
Death of Shah Alam-II
Death-In 1806 Shah Alam-II died of natural causes. After his death, his son Akbar-II succeeded him