Muhammad Ali Bogra
Muhammad Ali Bogra was born on the 19 October 1909 in East Bengal. He was grandson of Nawab Ali Choudhry. He married Hameeda Begum, who was also a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan. After completing his graduation he joined politics. As a result of election in 1937, Muhmmad Ali Bogra became the Parliamentary Secretary to Bengal province.
Initially he stayed in Bogra and became the town’s mayor. Later, he was elected to the District Board as chairman. After that he became interested in politics and became a member of the ‘Waqf Board.’ In 1937 he was elected as an MLA in the Bengal assembly. He was the primary Muslim League candidate. In 1946, he was appointed Health Minister and then Finance Minister of Bengal both under Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy government.
He founded Dhaka Medical College and Lake Medical College and Hospital while he was the Health minister. Then he was appointed as local-government minister and minister of finance, respectively. In 1948, he was appointed ambassador to Burma. In 1949, he was appointed as High Commissioner to Canada, and in 1952, he was appointed Ambassador to the United States.
M. Ali Bogra as Prime Minister 17 April 1953-7 August 1955
In 1953 Governor-General Ghulam Mohammad removed Prime Minister Khawaja Nazimuddin from office. After Khawaja Nazimuddin, Muhmmad Ali Bogra was appointed as Prime Minister of Pakistan. He served as Prime Minister from 17 April 1953-7 August 1955. After being appointed as Prime Minister , Bogra began working on a constitution for Pakistan. However, he handled this matter as a technocrat rather than a political figure. When Bogra became Prime Minister, he appointed retired Major General Iskandar Mirza as his Interior Minister and General Ayub as his Defence Minister.
The Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula 1953
The Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula is probably his most famous work. Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra’s priority as Pakistan’s new leader was to reach a consensus on a constitution. In six months he completed this task. The Bogra formula was presented to the Constituent Assembly on 7–October 1953.
Bogra’s formula was well-received by different segments of society in contrast to the two reports of the Basic Principles Committee. Because it was seen as a proposal that could bridge the gulf between Pakistan’s two wings and serve as a uniting force for Pakistan. Thirteen days were spent debating the issue in the Constituent Assembly, and on November 14, 1953 Governor-General Ghulam Muhmmad formed a committee to prepare the constitution. On August 4, 1955, Ghulam Muhmmad left the position due to illness. So, Iskandar Mirza, Interior Minister, was appointed as Acting Governor-General on August 7, 1955. Soon after Iskandar Mirza became Permanent Governor-General, he dismissed Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra before passing the constitution.
Features of Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula
- The federal legislature is proposed to be divided into two houses, the Unitary and People’s Houses of Congress.
- The House of Units would have 50 members, evenly distributed among five units: East Bengal, Punjab, the Northwest Frontier Provinces, Frontier States, Sindh, and Khairpur, Baluchistan.
- Legislators in the units would indirectly elect the House of Units.
- There were 300 members in the House of People – 165 in East Bengal, 75 in Punjab, 13 in the NWFP, 19 in Sindh, 3 in Baluchistan, and 7 in Bahawalpur State.
- It was agreed that the two chambers would have equal authority in all areas, including legislation. An election of the head of state and a vote of confidence could be conducted in a joint session of both houses.
- Whenever the two Houses disagree, a joint session is held, and the topic is determined by majority vote, provided that at least thirty percent of the members from each zone are present.
- With 175 seats in each zone, it maintained parity between East and West Pakistan in combined Houses. Each of the two houses of the Legislative Assembly was to have 175 seats for each wing.
- The Supreme Court was given the power to evaluate whether a law conformed with the basic principles of the Holy Quran and Sunnah in place of the Board of Ulama.
- Two houses of the Legislative Assembly formed an Electoral College for Presidential elections. The President was to be elected for five years.
- Both Houses should have equal authority, but some people felt that the lower house should have greater power because it represents the people, which they felt should be reflected in its power.
Conclusion of Bogra Formula
However, this idea was generally supported, although the parliament was divided on the issue. Bengali and Urdu were declared Pakistan’s national languages by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan in 1954. Thus, constitution-making became easier after the Bogra formula.
Nehru Bogra Meetings on Kashmir Issue
In 1953 Muhmmad Ali met with the Indian Prime Minister in London and then in Karachi the following month. He asked him to resolve the Kashmir issue, which would promote good relations between India and Pakistan.
Results of Nehru Bogra Meeting
- They believed that a fair and unbiased referendum would resolve the conflict following the views of Kashmiris.
- In April 1954, the plebiscite administrator should be appointed.
- Peace and collaboration between the two countries are necessary for progress in this direction.
All his efforts to reach a peaceful settlement in the Kashmir dispute failed when Nehru later ran from his plebiscite commitment. Muhammad Ali Bogra wrote in a letter to Nehru on September 21, 1954, by saying, “I trust and pray that men’s consciences and intelligence may still be able to recognize the tremendous injustice and dangers inherent in the continuation of this unfortunate debate.”
In the Ayub Khan Government he was appointed as Pakistan’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. He worked until his death. On 23 January 1963 he died in Dhaka.
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