Arrival of Islam in Subcontinent
Before the Arrival of Islam In subcontinent, there were Hinduism , Buddhism , Jainism and Zoroastrianism (Parsi) people . Subcontinent people were connected with other regions of world due to trade. Arrival of Islam in Subcontinent started through arab traders. Arab traders were also connected with the subcontinent even before Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him)’s. Arab Traders traveled to the subcontinent regularly to trade products, gold, Iron , cloth and many others spices. With arrival of Islam in subcontinent a new era started here. When Arabs people became Muslims, they brought Islam there and spread it into the subcontinent even before Muhammad Bin Qasim came.
Initially Arab Traders came in India’s South Seas and the coastlines of Sri Lanka, wherein at the beginning of the ninth century, tiny Muslim settlements started. Then from this coastal area Muslim spread in other parts because India coastal areas was the hub of transshipment of high-quality commodities to China, the Middle East, South East Asia, and Eastern Europe. Through interconnections, conversions, and continuing traders’ inflow, the Islam flourished in subcontinent and other parts. These merchants had significant economic roles, and even non-Muslim kings, such as the Zamorin of Calicut (Kozhikode), was impressed from them.
Cheraman Perumal (Ravi Verma)
In the southwest of India, there was the Chera Dynasty, and his last ruler was named Ravi Verma. One night he was walking in his palace with his queen, and he saw the splitting of the moon. He got shocked by this splitting of the moon instantly. He called astronomers to note down the exact time of splitting.
He inquired about the splitting of moon to many people but couldn’t find the answer. After some time, when some Arabs came in Cheraman Perumal and visited the palace of Ravi verma, he asked them also. They justified moon splitting and told him about Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him).
After that he left the kingdom and moved to Saudi Arabia, where he embraced Islam. Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be upon Him) renamed him Tajuddin (crown of faith). He wrote a letter to his kingdom to accept Islam. On his order, the first mosque of India was built in 624 AD in Cheraman Perumal dynasty at Kodungallur (Kerala, India). Later, Malik Dinar came into Cheraman Perumal Dynasty to teach Islam. Tajuddin ordered people to follow him.
Bibi Pak Daman Lahore
The real name of Bibi Pak Daman Lahore was Ruqayya bint Ali. She was the daughter of Hazrat Ali (R.A) and Sahba bint Rabia. She was the stepsister of Abbas ibn Ali, Hussain ibn Ali and Hassan ibn Ali. She married to Muslin ibn Aqeel. She came to Lahore (Pakistan) with five companions after the Battle of Muharram. It is believed that her daughter and Muslim bin Aqeel sisters were with her.
Muhammad Bin Qasim biography
Muhammad bin Qasim came to the subcontinent and conquered Sindh and Punjab alongside the Indus river (today part of Pakistan). He was born in Taif and also got his education there. (modern-day Saudi Arabia). As he became young, he lost his father. Then his mother took care of him. He married to Hajjaj bin Yousaf’s daughter which made him more prominent in Umayyad Empire. When Hajjaj bin Yousaf decided to attack at subcontinent, he sent Muhamamd bin Qasim for this expedition. When Qasim came to the subcontinent, it was an uncontrolled region with many local rulers. The Sindh and Punjab victory by Qasim permitted more Islamic expansion into India.
At that time Sindh was mainly populated mainly by semi-nomadic people. According to Muslim sources there were pirates along the Indian trade route who raid on the traders and other people. When Hajjaj was governor of Hejaz, the Meds (a tribe in Sindh) raided on Muslim people traveling from Sri Lanka to Saudi Arabia and kidnapped the people. The Governor of Raja Dahir , Deebal Partaab Raye, later imprisoned these Arabs. One woman among those people escaped and wrote a letter to Hajjaj for help. Hajjaj requested to Raja Dahir for freeing prisoners and re-compensation, but Raja Dahir refused.
In 711 A.D., Hajjaj dispatched Muhammad Bin Qasim to lead this massive campaign. It was the same time when Muslims conquered Spain and many regions of Central Asia and Africa. Because already Muslims were involve in many conflicts therefore it was unable to go on a new expedition.
Hajjaj oversaw the expedition from Kufa, keeping in constant communication with Muhammad bin Qasim through periodic updates and subsequently issuing instructions regularly. Hajjaj put more thought and strategy into this expedition. In 710 C.E Muhammad bin Qasim’s army left Shiraz consisted of 6,000 Syrian cavalry and Iraqi Mawali. In addition, many fighters joined him later and 6,000 camel riders at the Sindh border. Following then, five catapults (“Manjaniks’ ‘) and troops were sent directly to Debal via sea.
The Arab army marched north from Debal, quietly capturing cities like Nerun and Susan (Sehwan). The Qasim army quickly captured small towns; however, Raja Dahir’s troops were prepared on the opposite side of the Indus river. Muhammad bin Qasim returned to Nerun to rejoin the troops sent by Hajjaj. After that he crossed the Indus river and fought with Raja Dahir. In this battle Raja Dahir was killed and Sindh came in Muslim Control. After battle Muhammad bin Qasim banned to kill intellectuals, merchants, and farmers. Additionally, one-fifth of the treasure, including slaves, was sent to Hajjaj and the Caliph.
After that Muhamamd bin Qasim moved along with Indus river and conquered other areas. Soon he captured remaining areas like Brahmanabad, Alor (Aror), and Multan.
Muhammad bin qasim achievements
He took a conciliatory approach, suggesting that the people accept Muslim authority in exchange for non-interference in their religious practices as long as they paid their duties and taxes. He appointed a Muslim commander in-charge of each town known as an Amil. He enforced Islamic Sharia rule on the people of the region. On the other hand, Hindus were allowed to run their communities and settle disputes according to their own set of laws and old hierarchical structures such as Village Headmen (Rais) and Tribal chiefs.
He imposed Taxes (mal) and Kharaj ( tribute)and introduced the Islamic economic system. He also abducted slaved and prohibited Non-Muslim locals to make military. He imposed Zakat on Muslims a progressive tax, higher on the upper classes and lower on the poor people.
Muhammad bin Qasim death Reason
Soon after the conquering of Sindh, Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid-I and Governor of Hejaz Hajjaj bin Yousaf died. After that Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded Walid-I. Sulayman got political support from Hajjaj’s opponents. So he summoned both of Hajjaj’s victorious generals, Qutaibah bin Muslim (Conqueror of Central Asia) and Qasim and killed them. Some people don’t belive in such Muhammad bin Qasim death Reason.
Later Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab, governor of Fars, Sindh, Kirman, and Makran.
Muhammad bin Qasim death Reason,Muhammad Bin Qasim biography