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Muhammad Bin Tughlaq History

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Muhammad bin Tughlaq

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq History

 In history, Muhammad bin Tughlaq Shah, also known as Muhammad Tughlaq, gained the throne when his father Ghiyas-ud-din died. He was the second ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty. Following Ghiyas-ud-din’s death, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq declared himself Sultan in Tughlaqabad. After spending 40 days there, he traveled to Delhi, where the people and the Nobles greeted him. He had a solid liberal education and was extremely smart and accomplished. He had a thorough understanding of logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and physical sciences, as well as medicine and dialectics. In addition, he was generous and had a good moral character. 

Early Career

  • He was one of history’s most amazing kings. 
  • He was a well-educated man who spoke Arabic and Persian well. 
  • Khurasan Expedition

     Adilabad Fort

    He was well-versed in religion, philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and logic. 

  • He was also an excellent calligrapher.
  • He was a competent commander from a military standpoint and was raised to the rank of master of the horse by an ordinary soldier during the reign of Sultan Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji
  • He built the fort Adilabad in Tughlaqabad city 
  • He also established Jahanpanah city in 1326. It was the fourth medieval city of Delhi.

Despite his excellent qualifications and intelligence, Sultan Muhamad-bin-Tughlaq possessed qualities of hastiness and impatience, which led to the failure of many of his experiments and the label of “ill-starred idealist.” 

Policies of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq

These are the domestic policies of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.

  • Many people fled to the forests to avoid paying high taxes, resulting in a lack of farming and a severe food crisis. 
  • To secure his capital, he relocated it from Delhi to Devagiri and commanded the ordinary people and government employees to relocate. It was a blunder. So after much effort, he ordered them to come back to Delhi which was one of the policies of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
  • He pioneered the use of copper as a kind of currency. 
  • Because the value of coins fell, he removed the copper token currency. 
  • He gathered a force of 3 70,000 men to conquer Khurasan, Iraq, and Transoxiana
  • Mohammed-bin-internal Tughluq’s many plans were good, but they failed due to poor implementation. 
  • His rash actions and poor policy implementation are blamed for the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. 
  • Ibn battuta from Moraco also visited India during his tenure. He also served as a Judge for 6 years in India.  

Revenue Reforms

  • He passed a mandate requiring the provinces to compile a register of their revenues and expenditures. 
  • Governors of provinces were instructed to submit records detailing their income and expenditures and any additional information required for the compilation process. 
  • To handle the Revenue issues, he established a separate office with many clerks and officers. 
  • He established a common land revenue standard and assess each of his kingdom’s villages. 

Taxation in the Doab

  • To increase the wealth, he raised taxes in the Doab region.
  • The Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s decision to raise taxes in the Doab Region was an ill-advised move. 
  • Without a doubt, the Doab region between the Ganga and the Yamuna was extremely fruitful, with output exceeding that of any other part of the country. 
  • Since the Ala-ud-din Khilji” period, peasants paid about half of their produce inland revenue tax. 
  • As a result, Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq raised the land revenue levy in the Doab by another 10 percent, causing considerable peasant dissatisfaction. 
  • It occurred at a time when the Doab region was facing a famine. One policeman was appointed for tax collection. 
  • After this people couldn’t pay the taxes so many of them joined the gang of robbers in the forests and they started robbing the other people. Finally, the problem was recognized by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, but it was too late. 
  • He made every effort to return them to their homes and provided them with various agricultural aids and loans to improve their economic situation. 
  • Despite this, his ministers misinterpreted him. His taxation approach in the Doab had the goal of increasing military resources. 

Establishment of Agriculture Department

  • He established the “Diwan-i-Kohi” Department of Agriculture. He introduced many schemes in this department. 
  • Under the schemes, many varieties of agricultural implements and seeds were given to peasants.  
  • They were instructed to plant a variety of crops in a rotation. To oversee the project, a massive number of cops and guards were assigned. 
  • The government spent nearly seventy lakhs on it. Despite this, the scheme was a complete failure. 
  • The desired level of production could not be met. 

It was due to various reasons.

  1. To begin with, the land chosen for farming was not particularly fruitful. 
  2. Second, the officers lacked experience, which resulted in poor planning and execution. 
  3. Some dishonest authorities plundered a large sum of money and produce. 
  4. Finally, because it was a new experiment, the Sultan required more time and attention, which he lacked. 
  5. He could have put in more effort to make it better. Even though the strategy failed miserably during his reign, it had a long-term influence. People, on the other hand, misinterpreted him. 

Experiments of Muhammad Bin Tuglaq

  • Some have referred to Sultan Muhammad-bin Tughluq as a “crazy king.” For all of his projects, such as 
  •  Introduced Token Currency
  • The capital is moved from Delhi to Devanagari
  • Expedition to Khurasan 
  • Expedition to Karajan

Transfer of the Capital

The most contentious step of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was transferring the capital from Delhi to Devagari (Daultabad).

He made this decision due to several circumstances. 

  • Initially, Devagiri served as a platform for Turkish expansion in India. 
  • Second, because Devagiri was at a central location, it could administer both the north and the south
  • Third, Delhi was closer to the Northwestern border, which was vulnerable to Mongol incursions. Devagiri, on the other hand, would be a haven almost free of Mongol assaults. 
  • Finally, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq believed that if his capital were in Devagiri, he would be able to take advantage of the immense wealth and resources of the south. 
  • However, lb Batuta cites an entirely different motive for this capital transfer. Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was disgusted with the life of Delhi since he was receiving nearly daily many anonymous letters from citizens of the city attacking and condemning him. He wished to leave the city forever. In 1327, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ordered the transfer of capital.

Introduced Token Currency

  • Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq introduced token currency which was another brave attempt. 
  • Because currency or money is a means of trade, it must be produced in large quantities to serve the function of exchange in today’s world. 
  • The predecessors of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq relied on gold and silver coins as a means of transaction. 
  • However, during Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s reign, many coins were required for various transactions, and gold and silver coins were rare.  
  • Furthermore, he strained the treasury by spending a large sum of money on different experiments, including capital transfer. 
  • He also desired to conquer many other countries, for which a large sum of money was required. 

Considering all of these issues, he introduced a bronze currency with the same value as the silver tanka or Token currency.

Khurasan Expedition

  • Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s efforts were not limited to internal concerns; he was also interested in foreign affairs. 
  • The first expedition was  Khurasan. He wanted to capture the kingdom of Khurasan, which was ruled by Iraq, to satisfy his desire of becoming a great conqueror. 
  • For this, he enlisted one lakh men and paid them a year’s wage in advance. 
  • For this assignment, he spent over three lakhs of rupees. However, because he did not receive assistance from the Persians, this idea was abandoned. 
  • In the end, the Sultan suffered a significant financial loss, and his reputation as a conqueror was severely harmed. 
  • After Khurasan Expedition Karajan Expedition was another miscalculation.

Karajan Expedition

  • Muhammad-bin-trip Tughlaq’s to Karajal was another miscalculation. 
  • Between India and China, there was a Hindu kingdom known as Karajan. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq deployed a massive force to assault Karajal in 1337. Unfortunately, the Delhi army perished in the Himalayan high region following some initial success due to heavy weather. 
  • The army was devastated, and according to “Barani”, just ten horsemen out of a total of 10,000 were able to return to Delhi.
  • The Sultan suffered a significant loss in both men and money. Even though the Hindu ruler of Karajal acknowledged the Suzerainty of Delhi, the amount of loss was substantial. 
  • Further, Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq felt vulnerable against the Mongols because he had neglected the defense of the northwestern boundary. 
  • Tarma-Shirin Khan, the Mongol leader, invaded India and looted Multan and Lahore without seeing any resistance. 
  • When they approached Delhi, Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, unsure what to do, enticed the invaders with a large sum of gold and silver. 

People were quite insecure because of the Sultan’s infirmity. In addition, he was despised due to his failure in military missions and his incapacity to defend the Mongols. 

Death of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq

Death and the ensuing collapse of the empire. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq died in 1351 in Thatta, Sindh-Pakistan while commanding a campaign. He was succeeded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

 

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