Muhammad of Ghor (Ghurid Dynasty)
Mu’izzuddîn Muhammad Bin Sām or Shahāb-ud-Din or Muhammad Ghori ( 1150-1206) was one of the leaders of this Ghurid dynasty from the legendary Sur family that ruled the Ghouri for five hundred years. He established a vast empire consisted on India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and central Asia.
Muhammad of Ghor came to Ghazni City in 1173 to take the revenge from Mahmud Ghazni descendants the murder of his ancestor Mohammad Suri (who was defeated by Mahmud Ghazni ) and captured the city. In the meantime he also helped his brother Ghiyasuddin against Khwarizmi Empire for Khorasan kingship over West Asia. In 1175, Muhammad of Ghor took Multan from the dynasty of Hamid Ludi, who were also Pashtun but had affiliation with the Ismaili Shi’ite religion, and were allegedly un-Islamic. Then in 1175, he captured Uch.
In 1186 he conquered Lahore and ended the Ghaznavid finally by defeating Khusrau Malik. He became the single ruler of the Ghurid Empire after the death of his brother Ghiyasuddin in 1202 and reigned throughout until he got murdered in 1206 in Jhelum, Pakistan.
Muhammad ghori vs Prithviraj chauhan
The first battle of tarrin was fought between Muhammad ghori vs Prithviraj chauhan on the battleground of tarrin. In 1191, Ghori moved to Hindustan via the Khyber Pass and reached Punjab and captured a fortress of Bathinda in India. He appointed Qazi Zia-ud-Din as governor of the fort. But he heard the news that the Prithviraj army was on the way to take the fort so he waited there. Ultimately, the two armies met at the town of Tarain, 14 miles from Haryana (India) today. Firstly Muhamamd Ghori attacked and in return Prithviraj responded by counterattacking on three sides. Ghori couldn’t bear the attack, and his army was damaged and defeated. Muhammad Ghori himself got wounded in the battle and escaped from there.
Second battle of Tarain was fought in 1192
Second battle of tarain was fought b/w Ghori and Prithviraj. Ghori began preparations after losing the first war upon his return to Ghazni. On next year he went for war against Prithviraj . In the second battle of Tarain, Rajput army had 3,000 elephants, 300,000 cavalry, and infantry and the Mohammed Ghori army consisted of 120,000 fully-armored soldiers. Muhammad Ghori attacked at early morning. The Rajput army was unaware of the attack and not prepared to fight at all. Muhammad Ghori defeated the Prithviraj and captured him.
In 1193 Qutub ud Din Aibak (Ghori general) took over Ajmer and quickly captured northern and central India and make part of the Ghurid empire. Kingdoms of Rajput as Samana, Kohram Saraswati, and Hansi became the part of Ghori Dynasty without much resistance. After the battle of Chandler, Qutub ud Din Aibak arrived in Delhi and captured it after defeating Raja Jaichand of Kannauj. Soon Ghori dominated northern Rajasthan and Ganges-Yamuna Doab in the northern part of India in a year.
In a magnificent darbar in Lahore, attended by a massive majority of noblemen and officials of his Kingdom, the Muhammad Ghori named Qutb-ud-din Aibak as its Naib of Sultanat in India. On this occasion, Muhammad Ghori gave the title “Aibak” (axis of faith) to Qutb-ud-din.
Muhammad Ghori death
Ghori came to Lahore in 1206 to crush an uprising. His caravan stopped at Damik near Sohawa (which is near the city of Jhelum in the Punjab province of modern-day Pakistan) on his route back to Ghazni. Muhammad Ghori death was occurend on 15 March 1206 while offering his evening prayers. Ghori did not have children, but his Turkish slaves, who were trained as soldiers and administrators.After Muhammad Ghori death, the Ghurid Empire splitted into different empires. In Muhammad Ghori’s army and administration, many of his talented and loyal slaves took essential posts. His Empire was split between his slaves after his murder.
- The Sultanate of Delhi, which marked the commencement of the Slave Dynasty, was established by Qutb-Uddin Aibak in 1206 and became the Delhi Ruler.
- The Multan was given to Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha in 1210.
- Yildiz Tajuddin became the Ghazni ruler.
- Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji became Bengal ruler.
In 1994-1995, Pakistani Atomic scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan constructed a mausoleum for Muhammad Ghori.
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Second battle of tarain was fought,