Initial Problems of Pakistan after independence
Pakistan faced a lot of initial problems of Pakistan after independence. On the 14th of August 1947 Pakistan was created, but during this thousands of people were killed and property destroyed, while millions of men, women, and children were displaced. People suffered a lot as a result of this, in which Assets divided after independence was main problem. After uncounted sacrifices, Muslims achieved a country of their own where they may freely exercise their religion or culture.
Administrative problems of Pakistan in 1947
Many problems were faced by the people and the administration in the initial phases of Independence. Some important initial problems of Pakistan after independence are described below:
Assets divided after independence
Assets were divided after independence. It was decided by the British administration that Pakistan and India would receive a share of the assets. According to the deal, Pakistan received a 75-million portion of the revenue. Initially, only 20 crores were sent to Pakistan. Pakistan also faced problems in getting military equipment and records.
Water Crisis in Pakistan
In early April 1, 1948, India stopped the water of Pakistan’s rivers. As a result, the agricultural sector was destroyed in Pakistan, specifically in Punjab. Due to this issue, Pakistan even fought wars with India. Pakistan also got support from the United Nations to find a lasting solution to this dilemma, and on September 19, 1960, the “Indus Waters Treaty” was signed in Karachi.
The decision of Pakistan Capital
After independence, Pakistan’s major challenge was that it lacked numerous developed cities like India. It was also difficult because Pakistan was divided into East and West Pakistan. Pakistani leaders had limited options in capital cities. So after discussion, Karachi was selected as the Capital. Islamabad became Pakistan’s second capital on August 14, 1967, exactly 20 years after the partition.
Redcliffe Line Unfair Boundary Distribution
There was a commission set up to split certain provinces between Pakistan and India. Because the majority of British officers opposed the partition of India so they targeted Pakistan in many ways. Viceroy Mountbatten was Governor-General of India so he also had a soft spot for India. As a result of this, Pakistan lost a large number of areas with a majority of Muslim people.
The killing of Thousands of Muslim Refugees
Muslims living on the Indian side of Punjab began migrating to Pakistani Punjab after the province’s division was established. In this migration, thousands of Muslims were killed by Hindus and Sikhs. Several people, including men and children, were shot and murdered. There were more than 5 million fatalities in less than a month as a result.
The Pakistani government estimates that more than 65 million people moved from India. Over 52 million people transferred to Punjab. For the Pakistani government, making permanent plans for resettling so many people was a complex undertaking. Refugee camps for migrants were set up in Pakistan despite insufficient resources.
Many languages were spoken in Pakistan when it gained its freedom. So to make a unity it was decided to make the Urdu Language as National Language. But after that this provoked resentment among Bengalis, resulting in riots and, ultimately, the foundation of Bangladesh. The leaders mishandled the issue, and the riots resulted in the deaths of many people.
Annexation of Princely States
India also gained control of many states by force. As Nizam of Hyderabad refused to join India and Pakistan. He decided to remain independent but India seized control of the city by force.
Death of Quaid e Azam and Liaqat Ali Khan
Nearly one year after Pakistan’s independence, Quaid-e-Azam died, and Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan was assassinated in 1951. Due to the untimely deaths of these two leaders, Pakistan was left without leaders who were passionate about serving the country’s needs. Bureaucracy and insincere leaders brought the country to a standstill.
Soon after Pakistan declared independence, it grew concerned about safeguarding its frontiers due to its eastern and western borders. Afghanistan refused to acknowledge Pakistan. For a variety of reasons, the situation with India was also very bad. A lack of modern military equipment was another problem. Defending Pakistan’s borders became a significant issue during this period.
Economic Problems of Pakistan after Independence
India refused to give Pakistan a fair portion of its national resources after Pakistan became independent. In addition, the majority of Pakistan’s territory was agricultural, with very few industries. As a result, Pakistan experienced several economic difficulties.
Lack of Constitution
In the beginning, the Pakistani people were troubled by the absence of a constitution. As a result, some adjustments were made to the Indian Act of 1935, and a temporary constitution was formed to run the country.