Pervez Musharraf was the former 10th president of Pakistan and was born in Delhi, India, on 11 August 1943. He served as 7th Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff Committee. After the Martial law of 1999, he served as Chief Executive and later President of Pakistan from 2001 to 2008.
His father, Syed Musharrafdin, worked in the Indian Foreign Office. However, his mother was a teacher at school. After the independence, his family came to Pakistan and settled in Karachi. In 1949 Musharraf’s dad was appointed to Turkey, and the whole family relocated to Ankara when his dad became part of the Pakistani diplomatic delegation. Musharraf came back to Pakistan in 1957 and studied in Karachi at Saint Patrick School and later in F. C. College, Lahore.
He joined the Pakistan Military Academy in 1961, and in 1964 he was commissioned to work for the Artillery Regiment. In 1964 General Musharraf got married. He has two children, a son and a girl.
He fought as a young officer during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 and received Imtiazi Sanad for bravery. Then from 1966- 1972, he served in SSG. Musharraf commanded a brigade in the 1980s. He was elevated to General in the 1990s.
Pervez Musharraf was appointed General in 1991 and served as the General Director for Military Operations of the Pakistan Army (DGMO). In 1998 Nawaz Sharif appointed him Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of Joint Chief after dismissing the Jehangir karamat.
Kargil war 1999
In March 1999, General Pervez Musharraf started the Kargil war against India. The forces of Pakistan and Kashmir Mujahedeen began to infiltrate on the Indian side of the LOC. Pakistan’s army captured a lot of Indian territories. The confrontation intensified between both countries when India found the movement of Mujahedeen. When India raised the issue internationally, the Pakistan government rejected the Indian concerns. After that, India started the military operation against Mujahedeen and Pakistani army soldiers.
On the other hand, Pakistan couldn’t help those Mujahedeen due to international pressure. Those soldiers fought with only those resources. After an intense fight, those soldiers got killed without any support from the back. In the conflict, 524 Indian soldiers died, and 696 Muslims have died. The administration refused even to acknowledge many officers’ dead bodies.
After the Kargil war, the Chief of Naval Staff and Air Chief criticized Pervez Musharraf. There was a lot of anger in public. Musharraf started blaming Nawaz Sharif and Nawaz Sharif blamed Musharraf.
The Pakistan army took over the Sharif administration in 1999 in a bloody coup. On 12 October 1999, while Musharraf was returning from Sri Lanka to Pakistan, the prime minister replaced Musharraf as the head of military staff with Zia ud din Butt. The Prime Minister ordered that Musharraf aircraft not land in Karachi in Pakistan, which caused a great commotion in the Military.
Immediately the Military took control of the Karachi airport control tower, and the airplane landed in Karachi. The Pakistan army arrested Nawaz Sharif on the same day, and Musharraf became the Chief Executive of Pakistan after suspending the Constitution.
After the military coup, he pressured President Rafiq Tarrar to appoint Mushaf Ali as Air Chief and Admiral Shahid Karimullah as Naval of Staff.
The Chief Justice of the Supreme court also validated the martial law of Musharraf and made it legal for the next three years under the “doctrine of necessity.” On the other hand, Nawaz Sharif was found guilty of aerial hijacking and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Pervaiz Musharraf as President of Pakistan
After President Rafiq Tarrar’s resignation, Pervez Musharraf appointed himself as the President of Pakistan on 20-June 2001.
After Pervaiz Musharraf became President, he wanted to confirm the position of his Government by conducting elections. However, a referendum on General Pervez Musharraf for five more years was held before the general elections. On 30 April 2002, the referendum was held, but General Musharraf had no competitors and no choice but to vote. The main reason for the referendum was that the General wished to legitimize his reign.
The Opposition Party opposed it. A 15-party alliance for democracy restoration has been established, including the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League (PMP).
General Elections 2002
On 10 October 2002, General elections were held in the country. There were 78 million eligible voters, according to the Government. Eighty-seven thousand polling stations were established in jails, hospitals, oil stations, businesses, and marketplaces.
The Pro-Musharraf party PML(Q) won the election but remained unable to get an absolute Majority. PML(Q) formed a coalition government with MMA and MQM. Zafarullah Khan Jamali was elected as Prime Minister of Pakistan. In the meantime, Musharraf passed the Seventeen amendment of the Constitution, in which he got the power to dismiss the Prime Minister and dissolve the Government.
Just in two years, Musharraf became un-satisfy with Zafarulllah Khan’s policies and dismissed him. After that, Ch. Shujaat Hussain became the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Chaudhary Shujaat appointed Shaukat Aziz his Finance Minister. Musharraf became impressed by Shaukat Aziz policies. Later he appointed him Prime Minister of Pakistan. From 20 August 2004 to 15 November 2007, he served as Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Nonetheless, there were no electoral lists or electoral circles, and anybody who could demonstrate his identification and age may vote at any polling place. The Government estimates that almost 98% of the ballots tabulated supported the continued reappointment of General Musharraf, with a turnout of roughly 70% reported.
The newly elected Prime Minister was appointed Chief Executive. Following President Rafiq Tarar’s voluntary resignation, on 31 October 2002, he was given a second oath of office as President.
Reforms by Pervaiz Musharraf
In his reign, he made many reforms for the country and its people. These are enlisted reforms by Pervaiz Musharraf:
- Economic Savings and Investments
- Human Capital Development
- Women Empowerment
- Agricultural Reforms.
Blunders by Pervaiz Musharraf
There are three main blunders that Pervez Musharraf made in his reign.
- Support of US war against terror
- Emergency by Musharraf
- Lal Masjid operation
Support of US war against terror
Following the 11-September, 2001 attacks, George W. Bush urged Musharraf to join the battle on terror. Pakistan became an ally with the US against the Taliban government.
Emergency by Musharraf
On 3-Nov, 2007, he declared an emergency which lasted until 15 December 2007. Due to this, he suspended the Constitution. The Chief Justice was home arrested. He controlled the Media and monitored it under limitations.
Lal Masjid Operation
In 2007 The Lal Masjid administration announced the appointment of Sharia in the country. In demanding that Lal Masjid’s students began to attack DVD stores, massage parlors. In these attacks, these students kidnapped many foreigners also who were running massage centers. At last Musharraf government decided to start operations against Lal Masjid.
From 3-11 July 2007, the operation started. The operation resulted in 154 deaths, and later SSG took control of Lal Masjid. In 2008, as authority was handed to Asif Ali Zardari, Musharraf was compelled to retire.
On 18-Feb 2008, General elections were held in the country. Pakistan People Party won 116 seats in the election, and Yousaf Raza Gillani became the Prime Minister of Pakistan. PPP formed a coalition government with MQM, JUI-F, and ANP. In 2008 PML-N won 99 seats led by Ch. Nisar Ali khan because Nawaz Sharif was in exile.
On 18-August 2008, Musharraf announced his resignation. Asif Ali Zardari replaced him as President of Pakistan on 9-September 2008.