Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah
Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah (1316-1320) was the Khilji dynasty’s 3rd and final monarch in the subcontinent. He was the son and successor of Ala-ud-din Khilji. When Alauddin died, Malik Kafur appointed the younger son of Alauddin “Shahabuddin” as a puppet ruler and sent murderers to murder Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah. When the attackers arrived at Mubarak’s residence, he reminded them of his father. Then, with an elegant jeweled necklace, he wooed them and they set him free. After that Qutb-ud-din plotted against Malik Kafur. and murdered him. After killing Malik Kafur he became the king. After that, he made blinded to his younger brother Shahabuddin who was just six years old.
First, he began his rule by freeing thousands of prisoners and ended his father Ala-ud- din Khilji’s taxes and penalties. Then, on April 19, 1316 A.D., he declared himself Sultan Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah.
Administration of Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah
He abolished all the laws at that time, released over eighteen thousand prisoners and those who had been expelled from the city were allowed to return on the day Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah assumed the throne. In addition, Mubarak Shah gave his soldiers six months’ pay in advance and increased their salaries. However, while these measures provided respite to the people and aristocracy, they also increased commodity prices and it created inefficiencies in administration.
He was a pleasure seeker; the nobility and people followed suit, resulting in widespread corruption and the disintegration of the state. Everybody took advantage of the new ruler’s flaws and started to plot against the king. In Gujarat soon an uprising started against the Qutb-ud-din and on another hand, Harpal-deva declared himself king of Devagiri and declared its independence.
Military Campaigns of Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji
Defeats the Gujarat Rebellion
In the Rebellion of Gujarat, people killed the governor, Alp Khan. In the first year of his reign, Qutb-ud-din dispatched an army to Gujarat under the command of Ain-ul-Mulk Multani to put down the revolt. Ain-ul-Mulk reclaimed Gujarat and Nahrwala. Qutb-ud-din appointed his father-in-law ( Zajar Khan) as governor of Gujarat.
After appointing Malik Shahin as ruler of Delhi, Qutbuddin marched a considerable force to Devagiri in 1318. However, Devagiri was reclaimed by Harpal deva. After a fight, Rana Harpal deva was kidnapped and executed.
Qutubdin appointed Malik Yaklakhi as the ruler of Devagiri. After that, Qutb-ud-din built the Jami Masjid there (today it has changed into the temple by Indian-Hindus, known as Bharat Mata Temple).
Malik Asad-ud-din’s Plot to Murder the Sultan
Malik Asad-ud-din, son of Yaghrish Khan, Alauddin’s uncle, planned to assassinate Qutb-ud-din and then publicly declare himself Sultan. At that time Qutb-din was in Ghati-Sakun.
However, one of the helpers told Qutb-ud-din about the conspiracy. Soon Qutb-ud-din came back and caught Malik Asad and beheaded him. Qutb-ud-din, following his father’s pattern, ordered the death of Yaghrish Khan’s twenty-nine children, all of whom were young and unaware of the plot.
Khizr Khan ruled over India from A.D. 1414 to 1421. Khizr Khan passed his life as a true Sayyid. He was kind and generous. When Qutb-ud-din left Devagiri, some nobles turned him against his brother Khizr Khan, who was about ten years old. When Qutbuddin heard of it, he instantly killed his brother. After this many people became angry with the sultan.
Vulgarity of Qutbuddin
Many times in court Qutbuddin came in a woman dress and danced with males and females. Another day he came in a man’s dress and danced with a female. He was very fond of women and wine.
Khusro Khan was an Indian medieval military leader who ruled Delhi for a short period of time. His religion was Hindu before converting to Islam. Khusro Khan was the governor of Qutbuddin Mubarak.
Death of Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah
Khusro Khan made a plan to kill him. Firstly he has attracted the nobles of Qutbuddin Mubarak and then attacked him. Mubarak Shah attempted to flee by fleeing to the harem but was caught and beheaded. Later Khusro Khan was killed by the Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq and founded the Tughlaq Dynasty.