Muhammad Shah Rangeela’s original name was Roshan Akhtar. He was born on 07 August 1702 in Ghazni-Afghanistan and died on 06 April 1748 in Delhi-India. He ruled in the subcontinent from 1719 to 1748. Muhammad Shah Rangeela was the grandson of Bahadur Shah I.
Shah Rangeela History
In history, The Sayyids brothers assisted Shah Rangeela, the 18-year-old grandson of Bahadur Shah I, in ascending to the throne. Taking advantage of Mohammad Shah’s weak government and the ongoing struggle among the various nobility factions, several powerful and ambitious nobles started to announce autonomous republics. Hyderabad, Bengal, Awadh, and Rohilkhand pledged only feigned allegiance to the Mughal Emperor. As a result, the Mughal Empire was divided into different territories. In his era, Mughal Empire changed into many small territories.
In his era, many cultural developments happened. He was fond of music. In his era, the Qawwali was introduced in the Mughal court. During his era, the Quran was translated for the first time in Urdu and Persian languages. During his tenure, the Mughal noble’s dress was changed. He introduced Sherwawni ( till now the Prime minister of Pakistan and other nobles wear Sherwani at the time of Oath taking ceremony). Before him, the Mughals Emperor wears a Turkish dress.
He was the patron of arts and music. His pen name was ” Sada Rangeela” therefore he was started to call Muhmmad Shah Rangeela.
Maratha Mughal War (1728-1763)
At the beginning of 1723, after Asaf Jah I left Delhi, Marathas occupied Malwa’s rich province. Maratha Mughal war-The Maratha Empire was expanded up to the Narmada river, Ujjain, which was the capital of Malwa. The Maratha army attacked the Mughal region of Malwa, which was headed by Baji Rao. Sarbuland Khan was appointed governor of Gujarat in 1725. The Marathas attacked Gujarat, but Sarbuland Khan and his soldiers drove them out. The majority of the Maratha soldiers were battling in Hyderabad, including Baji Rao I. In \ Hyderabad, Maratha won the battle and captured the area.
During the Maratha invasion of Orissa in 1747, the Maratha Subedar withdrew all forces when Alivardi Khan and the Mughal Army arrived at the Battle of Burdwan. The Maratha forces were defeated there by the Mughal army. However, these wars lasted until 1747.
Nadir Shah Invasion
Foreign invaders were drawn to India because of incompetent rulers, weak governance, and insufficient military strength. Persia’s monarch, Nadir Shah, attacked Punjab in 1739. Mohammad Shah Rangeela was defeated and imprisoned in the Battle of Kunar in 1739. After defeating Muhammad Shah Rangeela, Nadir Shah captured Delhi.
In Delhi, he slaughtered thousands of people. For days, Delhi appeared abandoned. Nadir Shah carried the Kohinoor diamond and Shah Jahan’s Peacock throne with him. He amassed big money by robbing a large metropolis like Delhi.
The invasion of Nadir Shah gave the already tortured Mughal empire a crushing blow and hastened its breakup. The kingdom of Mohammad Shah was curtailed almost near Delhi.
Mohammad Shah’s rule for about 30-year (1719-1748 A.D.) was the empire’s last opportunity to be saved. Mughal reputation among the people was still a significant political force when his reign began. A mighty king would have been able to save the dynasty. However, Mohammad Shah was not up to the challenge. He ignored state affairs and was never fully supported by capable wazirs. After his death, he was succeeded by Ahmad Shah Bahadur.