Simla Agreement 1972 Summary-Main clauses-Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto

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Simla Agreement

 Simla Agreement 1972 Summary

After the 1971 war Simla Agreement was signed between Pakistan and India  on July 2, 1972. “Indira Gandhi” the Prime Minister of India and President of Pakistan “Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto” signed this agreement which was a peace treaty to undo the effects of war in 1971. 

On July 15, 1972 Pakistan ratified the agreement and on August 3, 1972 India ratified it. The Simla Agreement ensured the withdrawal of forces from occupied territories by both sides during the war. Within two years, all POWs (prisoners of war) had returned to their homelands, and the war was officially declared over.

That document laid out the groundwork for good neighborly relations between India and Pakistan in a very comprehensive way. In the Simla Agreement, both nations committed to ending the conflict and confrontation that had emerged in the past.

According to the Simla Agreement, India and Pakistan agreed on a set of guiding principles to which they would adhere when managing their bilateral relations.

  • Respect each other’s sovereignty and  territorial integrity.   
  • No interference in internal affairs
  • Respect the political independence of other country
  • equality of sovereignty 
  • Abstaining from any  hostile propaganda
  • creation of line of control 

Main clauses-Simla agreement points

  • Through direct bilateral approaches, both parties are committed to a peaceful resolution of all issues.
  • Construction of cooperative relationships, with an emphasis on human-to-human contacts.
  • CBM (Confidence-Building measures) between India and Pakistan is crucial to lasting peace, so the Line of Control must remain inviolable in Jammu-and-Kashmir.
  • In its relations with Pakistan, India has adhered to the Simla Agreement. 
  • To promote friendly relations and peace both countries would avoid any conflict and confrontation. To govern their relationship, they agreed to abide by the United Nations Charter, and they affirmed that they would respect each other’s political independence, national unity and territorial integrity.
  • Both countries agreed to start travel and communications of people  to normalize the tension. For the restoration of normal relations, both governments agreed to resume communications and to promote travel. Both parties agreed to work together on economic and cultural projects in the future.
  • Both countries agreed to respect the line of control between Jammu and Kashmir established by the ceasefire of December 17, 1971.

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