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THE LORD MINTO- Treaty of Amritsar- Charter Act 1813

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Lord Minto

Lord Minto

Lord Minto was born On the 23rd of April 1751 . His father’s name was Sir Gilbert Elliot, who was the 3rd Baronet, and his mother’s name was Agnes. His younger brother’s name was Hugh Elliot. Around 1763, Minto and his brother Hugh were moved to Paris, where they studied under the Scottish philosopher David Hume. After graduation from University of Edinburgh, Lord Minto joined Christ Church, Oxford, and after graduation he joined the Bar

Governor of India:

In 1807,  Lord Minto was appointed governor-general of India after Lord Marquess Wellesley In his era two things happened mainly. 

  • Treaty of Amritsar
  • Charter Act of 1813

Treaty of Amritsar:

Treaty of Amritsar

Treaty of Amritsar

In 1809, the British East India Company signed the Treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler who established the Sikh Empire. Ranjit Singh wanted to solidify his territorial gains north of the Sutlej River. So he made a deal with East India Company.  It was signed between Charles T. Metcalfe and Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Background:

On April 25, 1809, Charles T. Metcalfe who lead the British East India Company, and Ranjit Singh agreed and signed the Treaty of Amritsar. For a decade, the pact established Anglo-Sikh connections. The British made this treaty because East wanted to secure one end of fight. At same time British were fighting with France and they had also threat from Russia.

Clauses

  • By signing this treaty, Maharaja Ranjit Singh agreed to recognize the Sutlej River as the dividing line between the Sikh Empire and British territory.
  • The British government vowed not to meddle in the affairs of the Sikh state.                                     

The Charter Act of 1813

The East India Company Act 1813, commonly known as the Charter Act 1813, was a British Parliament Act that renewed the charter granted to the British East India Company and preserved the Company’s jurisdiction in India. In this act  the Company’s economic monopoly was dissolved, with the exception of the tea and opium trades, as well as trade with China.  The East India Company’s charter was renewed for another 20 years by the British Parliament’s Charter Act of 1813. This act is significant because it defined the constitutional standing of British Indian territory for the first time.

Background:

  • British tradesmen and merchants suffered as a result of Napoleon Bonaparte’s Continental System in Europe (which barred the entry of British products into French allies in Europe).
  • As a result, they wanted a stake in British trade in Asia and the dissolution of the East India Company’s monopoly. The corporation opposed this.
  • Finally, under the Charter Act of 1813, British merchants were permitted to trade in India under a stringent licensing system.

Provisions:

  • The Crown’s control over British colonies in India was asserted by this Act.
  • The company’s reign was prolonged for an additional 20 years. Except for tea and opium trade with China, their commercial monopoly was broken.
  • It gave local governments the authority to tax those who were subject to the Supreme Court’s jurisdiction.
  • The dividend for the corporation was set at 10.5 percent.
  • The Act allowed Indian courts additional authority over European British subjects.
  • Another significant aspect of this act was the provision for missionaries to come to India and participate in religious proselytization. In accordance with the Act’s requirements, the missionaries were successful in obtaining the appointment of a Bishop for British India, with his headquarters in Calcutta.
  • The act included a monetary incentive for the revival of Indian literature and the advancement of science.
  • The corporation was intended to play a larger role in the education of the Indians who worked for them. It was to set aside one lakh rupees for this purpose.

He was succeeded by Marquess of Hastings.

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