President Yahya khan
General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan was born in Chakwal in February 1917. His father’s name was “Saadat Ali Khan. Yahya Khan joined the Indian Military Academy, after completing his studies at Punjab University. In 1938 he was posted in North-West Frontier Province.
As a soldier in World War II, he served in North Africa, in the Middle East and Italy. Yahya Khan played a major role in the establishment of the Pakistan Staff College in Quetta after Pakistan gained independence. He led an infantry division during the Vietnam War. In 1966, he was promoted to the rank of General and made “Commander-in-Chief” of the Pakistan Army.
Important events during Yahya Khan Era
- Martial law in 1969
- Legal framework order
- General election
- Separation of East Pakistan
- Awami league six-points program
Martial Law of General Yahya Khan 1969
When the situation in east Pakistan became worse Ayub Khan decided to hand over power to the Army Chief, General Yahya Khan, in 1969. The situation became out of control due to widespread agitation. On March 25, 1969, Yahya Khan declared martial law in Pakistan and became Chief Martial Law Administrator immediately after taking office. He dissolved the National and Provincial Assemblies and revoked the Constitution 1962. At the end of March, he became President of Pakistan’s Islamic Republic.
Legal framework order 1970
The moment he became president, he began looking for ways to hand over power to the elected representatives. He presented the Legal Framework Order on March 29, 1970, through a President Ordinance. It was a formula for how the upcoming General election 1970 were going to be run. Yahya Khan deserves credit for holding the first general elections in Pakistan’s history in December 1970.
General election 1970
When the results of General Election 1970 were announced, the trouble began. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Awami Rahman’s League won 160 of the 162 seats allotted to East Pakistan. Mujib-ur-Awami Rahman’s party couldn’t win any seat in West Pakistan. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s Pakistan Peoples Party won 81 National Assembly seats, all of which came from the Western Pakistan. PPP was also unable to win a single seat from eastern Pakistan. Neither Bhutto nor Mujib was ready to accept their opponent as Pakistan’s Prime Minister as a result of this split mandate. A session of the newly elected National Assembly could not be convened because Bhutto and Mujib couldn’t agree. Yahya also treated the situation in an unprofessional manner.
Six points of Sheikh Mujeeb
Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman was the founder of Bangladesh . He presented the “Six Point Formula” to the Pakistani government in 1966. It was likely to weaken the center and make the provinces more independent, so his idea was not well received by the Pakistani government. It was urged by the Awami League that all six points be included in the new constitution that would be drafted by the Constituent Assembly.
In the Six points of Sheikh Mujeeb, the following factors were taken into account:
- By using the direct adult franchise in the federal legislature, the provinces would be represented according to their population.
- Only foreign affairs, defense, and currency will be dealt with by the federal government
- Even when it comes to foreign affairs, the focus would be on economics as it relates to provinces
- Either two different currencies for the two wings, or a single one with a fixed exchange rate each wing has its own Federal Reserve System.
- It would be up to each province to decide whether or not to impose and collect taxes.
- For the federal government to fulfill its foreign affairs and defense responsibilities, it will receive enough shares. Each wing would have its foreign exchange account.
Indo-Pak war 1971
Army and paramilitary forces were used against political agitation in East Pakistan. As a result, Pakistan and India went to war in the winter of 1971. Yahya Khan, as Pakistan’s president and its commander-in-chief, failed to plan for the war. In the end, this led to Pakistan’s defeat, dismemberment of the country, and the incarceration of more than 90,000 Pakistanis. When the Pakistani forces surrendered and Dhaka fell, Yahya Khan became the country’s most infamous person. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the leader of the most popular party in the rest of Pakistan at the time, and then he handed over power to Bhutto on December 20, 1971.Yahya khan resigned on 20-December 1971. Yahya Khan was placed under house arrest by Bhutto in 1972.
Yahya khan relationship with Aleem Akhtar ( General Rani)
Aleem Akhtar known as General Rani was the mistress of Yahya khan. During his regime she was the most powerful woman. Many politicians and bureaucrats reached General Rani to get the attention of Yahya khan. Aleem Akhtar got divorce and after this she started the prostitutions business. She revealed in an interview that Yahya khan was very fond of women and alcohol and she maintained her position by providing both things to him. In 2002 She died in Lahore. The famous singer Adnan Sami mother Naureen ” was the maternal niece of General Rani and pop star singer Fakhr-e-Alam is grandson of her.
Death of President Yahya khan
On 10-Augut 1980 Yahya Khan died in Rawalpindi. After his resignation, he was replaced by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
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